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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

LUTHER VANDROSS LYRICS

"Impossible Dream"

To dream the impossible dream
To fight the unbeatable foe
To bear with unbearable sorrow
And to run where
the brave dare not go
To right the unrightable wrong
And to love pure and chaste from afar
To try when your arms are too weary
To reach the unreachable star
This is my quest
To follow that star
No matter how hopeless
No matter how far
To fight for the right
Without question or pause
To be willing to march,
march into hell
For that heavenly cause
And I know
If I'll only be true
To this glorious quest
That my heart
Will lie peaceful and calm
When I'm laid to my rest
And the world will be
better for this
That one man, scorned
and covered with scars,
Still strove with his last
ounce of courage
To reach the unreachable,
the unreachable,
The unreachable star
And I'll always dream
The impossible dream
Yes, and I'll reach
The unreachable star

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

 
MAY 4, 2008
WHILE IN 
MY HOLY SPIRIT 
TRANCE
I WHISTLED THIS SONG AND WAS ABLE IN A DIFFERENT DIMENSION
TO
REPAIR
 THE UNIVERSAL GRID
FOR
 DEPARTURE 
ALSO
JOHN PHILLIP SOUZA'S
TUNE'S
AS WELL

Miguel de Cervantes

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Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

portrait of Cervantes[a], by Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (c. 1600)
Born September 29, 1547(1547-09-29)
Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Died 23 April 1616 (aged 68)
Madrid, Spain
Occupation novelist, poet and playwright

Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra[b] (IPA: [miˈɣel ðe θerˈβantes saaˈβeðra] in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, painter and playwright. Cervantes is one of the most important and influential people in literature and the leading figure associated with the Siglo de Oro, the cultural flourishing of sixteenth century Spain. Cervantes' novel Don Quixote is considered a founding classic of Western literature and regularly figures among the best novels ever written. His work is considered among the most important in all of literature.[1] He has been dubbed el Príncipe de los Ingenios (the Prince of Wits).

Cervantes, born in Alcalá de Henares, was the fourth of seven children, of a doctor in a family whose origins may have been of the minor gentry. The family moved from town to town, and little is known of Cervantes's early years. In his early life he went on to work under a cardinal in the Catholic Church. By 1570 he had been enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by barbary pirates on his return home. He was ransomed by his captors and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid.

In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, La Galatea. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597 discrepancies in his accounts of three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605 he was in Valladolid, just when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer; he published the Exemplary Novels (Novelas ejemplares) in 1613, the Journey to Parnassus (Viaje del Parnaso) in 1614, and in 1615, the Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes noted that, "Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written. "[2]

Biography

Birth and early life

Miguel de Cervantes was born at Alcala de Henares, a Castilian city about 20 miles from Madrid, probably on September 29 (the feast day of St. Michael) 1547. He was baptized on October 9.[1] Miguel's paternal great-grandfather was Ruy Díaz de Cervantes, a prosperous draper who was born most probably in the 1430s. He married a Catalina de Cabrera about whom nothing at all is known. Their son, Miguel's grandfather Juan, studied law at the University of Salamanca. For most of his life he served as a minor magistrate, ending his career as a specialist in fiscal law for the Spanish Inquisition and was a well-to-do man. He married Leonor Fernández de Torreblanca, who was apparently his cousin and a daughter of a Cordoban physician. Miguel's father, Ruy (Rodrigo), was a barber-surgeon who set bones, performed bloodlettings, and attended "lesser medical needs". He presented himself as a nobleman and liked to act as a gentleman, which was not easy because of his low income.[3] Little is known of Cervantes' early years and education, but it seems that he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family. It seems that, much like Dickens' father, Miguel's father was embargoed for debt. The court records of the proceedings show a very poor household. While some of his biographers argue that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no solid evidence for supposing that he did so.[c] There has been speculation also that Cervantes studied with the Jesuits in Córdoba or Sevilla.[4]

 Soldier and captive

The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese (c. 1572, oil on canvas, 169 x 137 cm, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese (c. 1572, oil on canvas, 169 x 137 cm, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)

The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Castilia remain uncertain. Whether he was the "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", fleeing from the royal warrant of arrest for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel is another mystery.[5] In any event, in going to Italy, Cervantes was doing what many young Spaniards of the time did to further their careers in one way or another. Rome would reveal to the young artist its ecclesiastic pomp, ritual and majesty. In a city teeming with ruins, Cervantes could focus his attention on Renaissance art, architecture and poetry (knowledge of Italian literature is so readily discernible in his own productions), and on rediscovering antiquity; he could find in the ancients "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments".[6] Thus, Cervantes' continuing desire for Italy, as revealed in his later works, was in part a desire for a return to the Renaissance.[7]

By 1570 Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a Castilian infantry regiment stationed in Naples, then a possession of the Spanish crown. He was there for about a year before he saw active service. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League (a coalition of the Pope, Spain, Venice, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Savoy, the Knights of Malta and others under the command of John of Austria) that defeated the Ottoman fleet on October 7 in the Gulf of Lepanto near Corinth. Though taken down with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, and begged to be allowed to take part in the battle, saying that he would rather die for his God and his king than keep under cover. He fought bravely on board a vessel, and received three gunshot wounds – two in the chest and one which rendered his left arm useless, resulting in amputation. In Journey to Parnassus, he was to say that he "had lost the movement of the left hand for the glory of the right" (he was thinking of the success of the first part of Don Quixote). Cervantes always looked back on his conduct in the battle with pride: he believed that he had taken part in an event that would shape the course of European history.

"What I cannot help taking amiss is that he[d] charges me with being old and one-handed, as if it had been in my power to keep time from passing over me, or as if the loss of my hand had been brought about in some tavern, and not on the grandest occasion the past or present has seen, or the future can hope to see. If my wounds have no beauty to the beholder's eye, they are, at least, honourable in the estimation of those who know where they were received; for the soldier shows to greater advantage dead in battle than alive in flight."
Miguel de Cervantes (Don Quixote - Part II, "The Author's Preface" translated by John Ormsby)

After the battle of Lepanto Cervantes remained in hospital for around six months, before his wounds were sufficiently healed to allow his joining the colors again.[8] From 1572 to 1575, based mainly in Naples, he continued his soldier's life; he participated in expeditions to Corfu and Navarino, and saw the fall of Tunis and La Goleta to the Turks in 1574.[9]

On September 6 or 7 1575 Cervantes set sail on the galley Sol from Naples to Barcelona, Spain, with letters of commendation to the king from the duke de Sessa and Don Juan himself.[10] On the morning of September 26, as the Sol approached the Catalan coast, it was attacked by Algerian corsairs. After significant resistance, in which the captain and many crew members were killed, the surviving passengers were taken to Algiers as captives.[11] After five years spent as a slave in Algiers, and four unsuccessful escape attempts, he was ransomed by his parents and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid. Not surprisingly, this period of Cervantes' life supplied subject matter for several of his literary works, notably the Captive's tale in Don Quixote and the two Algiers El trato de Argel (The Treaty of Algiers) and Los baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), as well as episodes in a number of other writings, although never in straight autobiographical form.[1]

"The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings." - Miguel de Cervantes at the National Library, Spain -
"The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings." - Miguel de Cervantes at the National Library, Spain -

Literary pursuits

Main article: Don Quixote

In 1584, he married the much younger Catalina de Salazar y Palacios. During the next 20 years he led a nomadic existence, working as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada, and as a tax collector. He suffered a bankruptcy, and was imprisoned at least twice (1597 and 1602) for irregularities in his accounts. Between the years 1596 and 1600, he lived primarily in Seville. In 1606, Cervantes settled permanently in Madrid, Spain; where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1585, Cervantes published his first major work, La Galatea, a pastoral romance, at the same time that some of his plays, now lost except for El trato de Argel (where he dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers) and El cerco de Numancia, were playing on the stages of Madrid. La Galatea received little contemporary notice, and Cervantes never wrote the continuation for it, (which he repeatedly promised). Cervantes next turned his attention to the drama, hoping to derive an income from that source, but the plays which he composed failed to achieve their purpose. Aside from his plays, his most ambitious work in verse was Viaje del Parnaso (1614), an allegory which consisted largely of a rather tedious though good-natured review of contemporary poets. Cervantes himself realized that he was deficient in poetic gifts.

If a remark which Cervantes himself makes in the prologue of Don Quixote is to be taken literally, the idea of the work, though hardly the writing of its "First Part", as some have maintained, occurred to him in prison at Argamasilla de Alba, in La Mancha. Cervantes' idea was to give a picture of real life and manners, and to express himself in clear language. The intrusion of everyday speech into a literary context was acclaimed by the reading public. The author stayed poor until 1605, when the first part of Don Quixote appeared. Although it did not make Cervantes rich, it brought him international appreciation as a man of letters. Cervantes also wrote many plays, only two of which have survived; short novels, and the vogue obtained by Cervantes's story led to the publication of a continuation of it by an unknown who masqueraded under the name of Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. In self-defence, Cervantes produced his own continuation, or "Second Part", of Don Quixote, which made its appearance in 1615.

For the world at large, interest in Cervantes centers particularly in Don Quixote, and this work has been regarded chiefly as a novel of purpose. It is stated again and again that he wrote it in order to satirize the romances of chivalry, and to challenge the popularity of a form of literature which for much more than a century had been a fad with the general public.

Don Quixote certainly reveals much narrative power, considerable humor, a mastery of dialogue, and a forcible style. Of the two parts written by Cervantes, the first is the more popular with the general public - containing the famous episodes of the tilting at windmills, the attack on the flock of sheep, the vigil in the courtyard of the inn, and the episode with the barber and the shaving basin. The second part is inferior to it in humorous effect; but, nevertheless, the second part shows more constructive insight, better delineation of character, an improved style, and more realism and probability in its action. In 1613, he published a collection of tales, the Exemplary Novels, some of which had been written earlier. On the whole, the Exemplary Novels are worthy of the fame of Cervantes; they bear the same stamp of genius as Don Quixote. The picaroon strain, already made familiar in Spain by the Lazarillo de Tormes and his successors, appears in one or another of them, especially in the Rinconete y Cortadillo, which is the best of all. He also published the Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, and in 1615, the Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes. At the same time, Cervantes continued working on Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, a novel of adventurous travel completed just before his death, and which appeared posthumously in January, 1617.

Death

Cervantes died in Madrid on April 23, 1616; coincidentally William Shakespeare also died on that date, but not on the same day; Britain was still using the Julian calendar, whereas Spain had already adopted the Gregorian calendar.[12] In honour of this coincidence UNESCO established April 23 as the International Day of the Book.[13] It is worth mentioning that the Encyclopedia Hispanica claims the date widely quoted as Cervantes' date of death, namely April 23, is the date on his tombstone which in accordance of the traditions at the time would be his date of burial rather than date of death. If this is true, according to Hispanica, then it means that Cervantes probably died on April 22 and was buried on April 23. Of his burial-place nothing is known except that he was buried, in accordance with his will, in the neighbouring convent of Trinitarian nuns, of which it is supposed his daughter, Isabel de Saavedra, was a member, and that a few years afterwards the nuns removed to another convent, carrying their dead with them. But whether the remains of Cervantes were included in the removal or not no one knows, and the clue to their resting-place is now lost beyond all hope.

The statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbor of Nafpactos
The statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbor of Nafpactos

Works

Novels

Cervantes's novels, listed chronologically, are as follows:

  • La Galatea (1585), a pastoral romance in prose and verse based upon the genre introduced into Spain by Jorge de Montemayor's Diana (1559). Its theme is the fortunes and misfortunes in love of a number of idealized shepherds and shepherdesses, who spend their life singing and playing musical instruments.
  • El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (1605)
  • Novelas ejemplares (1613), a collection of twelve short stories of varied types about the social, political, and historical problems of the Cervantes' Spain:
  1. La gitanilla (The Gypsy Girl)
  2. El amante liberal (The Generous Lover)
  3. Rinconete y Cortadillo
  4. La española inglesa (The English Spanish Lady)
  5. El licenciado Vidriera (Vidriera, the Lawyer)
  6. La fuerza de la sangre (The Power of Blood)
  7. El celoso extremeño (The Jealous Old Man From Extremadura)
  8. La ilustre fregona (The Illustrious Kitchen-Maid)
  9. Novela de las dos doncellas (The Two Damsels)
  10. Novela de la señora Cornelia (Lady Cornelia)
  11. Novela del casamiento engañoso (The Deceitful Marriage)
  12. El coloquio de los perros (The Dialogue of the Dogs)
  • Segunda parte del ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (1615)
  • Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda (1617).
Los trabajos is the best evidence not only of the survival of Byzantine novel themes but also of the survival of forms and ideas of the Spanish novel of the second Renaissance. In this work, published after the author's death, Cervantes relates the ideal love and unbelievable vicissitudes of a couple who, starting from the Arctic regions, arrive in Rome, where they find a happy ending for their complicated adventures.

La Galatea

La Galatea, the pastoral romance, which Cervantes wrote in his youth, is an imitation of the Diana of Jorge de Montemayor, and bears an even closer resemblance to Gil Polo's continuation of that romance. Next to Don Quixote and the Novelas ejemplares, it is particularly worthy of attention, as it manifests in a striking way the poetic direction in which the genius of Cervantes moved even at an early period of life.

Don Quixote

Main article: Don Quixote
Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right)
Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right)

Don Quixote (sometimes spelled "Quijote") is actually two separate books that cover the adventures of Don Quixote, also known as the knight or man of La Mancha, a hero who carries his enthusiasm and self-deception to unintentional and comic ends. On one level, Don Quixote works as a satire of the romances of chivalry which ruled the literary environment of Cervantes' time. However, the novel also allows Cervantes to illuminate various aspects of human nature by using the ridiculous example of the delusional Quixote.

Because the novel - particularly the first part - was written in individually published sections, the composition includes several incongruities. In the preface to the second part, Cervantes himself pointed out some of these errors, but he disdained to correct them, because he conceived that they had been too severely condemned by his critics.

Cervantes felt a passion for the vivid painting of character, as his successful works prove. Under the influence of this feeling, he drew the natural and striking portrait of his heroic Don Quixote, so truly noble-minded, and so enthusiastic an admirer of everything good and great, yet having all those fine qualities, accidentally blended with a relative kind of madness; and he likewise portrayed with no less fidelity, the opposite character of Sancho Panza, a compound of grossness and simplicity, whose low self-esteem leads him to place blind confidence in all the extravagant hopes and promises of his master. The subordinate characters of the novel exhibit equal truth and decision.

The essential connection of these episodes with the whole has sometimes escaped the observation of critics, who have regarded as merely parenthetical those parts in which Cervantes has most decidedly manifested the poetic spirit of his work. The novel of El curioso impertinente cannot indeed be ranked among the number of these essential episodes, but the charming story of the shepherdess Marcela, the history of Dorothea, and the history of the rich Camacho and the poor Basilio, are unquestionably connected with the interest of the whole.

IV centenary of Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605-2005)
IV centenary of Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605-2005)

These serious romantic parts, which are not, it is true, essential to the narrative connection, but strictly belong to the characteristic dignity of the whole picture[citation needed], also prove how far Cervantes was from the idea usually attributed to him of writing a book merely to entice laughter. The passages, which common readers feel inclined to pass over[citation needed], are, in general, precisely those in which Cervantes is most decidedly a poet, and for which he has manifested an evident predilection. On such occasions, he also introduces among his prose, episodical verses, for the most part excellent in their kind and no translator can omit them without doing violence to the spirit of the original.

Were it not for the creative spirit with which Cervantes has contrived to preserve an intermediate tone between pure poetry and prose, Don Quixote would not deserve to be cited as the first classic model of the modern romance or novel. It is, however, fully entitled to that distinction. Cervantes was the first writer who formed the genuine romance of modern times on the model of the original chivalrous romance of the Middle Ages. The result has proved that modern literary style, however readily it may in other respects conform to the rules of the antique, nevertheless requires, in the narration of fictitious events, a certain union of poetry with prose, which was unknown to the Greeks and Romans at their height of creativity[citation needed]. It was only necessary to seize on the right tone, but that was a point of delicacy, which the inventors of romances of chivalry were not able to comprehend. Diego de Mendoza, in his Lazarillo de Tormes, departed too far from poetry. Cervantes, in his Don Quixote restored to the poetic art the place it was entitled to hold in this class of writing; and he must not be blamed if cultivated nations have subsequently mistaken the true spirit of this work, because their own novelists had led them to regard common prose as the style peculiarly suited to romance composition.

Don Quixote is, moreover, the undoubted prototype of the comic novel. The humorous situations are, it is true, almost all burlesque, which was certainly not necessary, but the satire is frequently so delicate, that it escapes rather than obtrudes on unpracticed attention; as for example, in the whole picture of the administration of Sancho Panza in his imaginary island. The language, even in the description of the most burlesque situations, never degenerates into vulgarity; it is on the contrary, throughout the whole work, so noble, correct and highly polished, that it would not disgrace even an ancient classic of the first rank[citation needed]. This explanation of a part of the merits of a work, which has been so often wrongly judged, may perhaps seem to belong rather to the eulogist than the calm and impartial historian. Let those who may be inclined to form this opinion study Don Quixote in the original language, and study it rightly, for it is not a book to be judged by a superficial perusal[citation needed]. But care must be taken lest the intervention of many subordinate traits, which were intended to have only a transient national interest, should produce an error in the estimate of the whole. By the 20th century it became clear that Don Quixote was the first true modern novel, a systemical and structural masterpiece.

Don Quixote is one of the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western World" and the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky called it "the ultimate and most sublime word of human thinking".

Novelas ejemplares

It would be scarcely possible to arrange the other works of Cervantes according to a critical judgment of their importance; for the merits of some consist in the admirable finish of the whole, while others exhibit the impress of genius in the invention, or some other individual feature.

A distinguished place must, however, be assigned to the Novelas[14] ejemplares ("Moral or Instructive Tales"). They are unequal in merit as well as in character. Cervantes doubtless intended that they should be to the Spaniards nearly what the novellas of Boccaccio were to the Italians, some are mere anecdotes, some are romances in miniature, some are serious, some comic, and all are written in a light, smooth, conversational style.

Four of them are perhaps of less interest than the rest: El amante liberal, La señora Cornelia, Las dos doncellas and La española inglesa. The theme common to these is basically the traditional one of the Byzantine novel: pairs of lovers separated by lamentable and complicated happenings are finally reunited and find the happiness they have longed for. The heroines are all of most perfect beauty and of sublime morality; they and their lovers are capable of the highest sacrifices, and they exert their souls in the effort to elevate themselves to the ideal of moral and aristocratic distinction which illuminates their lives.

In El amante liberal, to cite an example, the beautiful Leonisa and her lover Ricardo are carried off by Turkish pirates; both fight against serious material and moral dangers; Ricardo conquers all obstacles, returns to his homeland with Leonisa, and is ready to renounce his passion and to hand Leonisa over to her former lover in an outburst of generosity; but Leonisa's preference naturally settles on Ricardo in the end.

Another group of "exemplary" novels is formed by La fuerza de la sangre, La ilustre fregona, La gitanilla, and El celoso extremeño. The first three offer examples of love and adventure happily resolved, while the last unravels itself tragically. Its plot deals with the old Felipe Carrizales, who, after traveling widely and becoming rich in America, decides to marry, taking all the precautions necessary to forestall being deceived. He weds a very young girl and isolates her from the world by having her live in a house with no windows facing the street; but in spite of his defensive measures, a bold youth succeeds in penetrating the fortress of conjugal honor, and one day Carrizales surprises his wife in the arms of her seducer. Surprisingly enough he pardons the adulterers, recognizing that he is more to blame than they, and dies of sorrow over the grievous error he has committed. Cervantes here deviated from literary tradition, which demanded the death of the adulterers, but he transformed the punishment inspired by the social ideal of honour into a criticism of the responsibility of the individual.

Rinconete y Cortadillo, El casamiento engañoso, El licenciado Vidriera and El coloquio de los perros, four works of art which are concerned more with the personalities of the characters who figure in them than with the subject matter, form the final group of these stories. The protagonists are two young vagabonds, Rincón and Cortado; Lieutenant Campuzano; a student, Tomás Rodaja, who goes mad and believes himself to have been changed into a witty man of glass, offering Cervantes the opportunity to chain witty jokes; and finally two dogs, Cipión and Berganza, whose wandering existence serves as a mirror for the most varied aspects of Spanish life. Rinconete y Cortadillo is one of the most delightful of Cervantes' works. Its two young vagabonds come to Seville attracted by the riches and disorder that the sixteenth-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis. There they come into contact with a brotherhood of thieves led by the unforgettable Monipodio, whose house is the headquarters of the Sevillian underworld. Under the bright Andalusian sky, people and objects take form with the brilliance and subtle drama of a Velazquez, and a distant and discreet irony endows the figures, insignificant in themselves, as they move within a ritual pomp that is in sharp contrast with their morally deflated lives. When Monipodio appears, serious and solemn among his silent subordinates, "all who were looking at him performed a deep, protracted bow." Rincón and Cortado had initiated their mutual friendship beforehand "with saintly and praiseworthy ceremonies." The solemn ritual of this band of ruffians is all the more comic for being concealed in Cervantes' drily humorous style.

Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda

Frontispiece of Persiles and Segismunda.

The romance of Persiles and Sigismunda, which Cervantes finished shortly before his death, must be regarded as an interesting appendix to his other works. The language and the whole composition of the story exhibit the purest simplicity, combined with singular precision and polish. The idea of this romance was not new, and scarcely deserved to be reproduced in a new manner. But it appears that Cervantes, at the close of his glorious career, took a fancy to imitate Heliodorus. He has maintained the interest of the situations, but the whole work is merely a romantic description of travels, rich enough in fearful adventures, both by sea and land. Real and fabulous geography and history are mixed together in an absurd and monstrous manner; and the second half of the romance, in which the scene is transferred to Spain and Italy, does not exactly harmonize with the spirit of the first half.

Poetry

Some of his poems are found in La Galatea. He also wrote Dos canciones a la armada invencible. His best work, however, is found in the sonnets, particularly Al túmulo del rey Felipe en Sevilla. Among his most important poems, Canto de Calíope, Epístola a Mateo Vázquez, and the Viaje del Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), (1614) stand out. The latter is his most ambitious work in verse, an allegory which consists largely of reviews of contemporary poets.

Compared to his ability as a novelist, Cervantes is often considered a mediocre poet, although he himself always harbored a hope that he would be recognized for having poetic gifts.

Viaje del Parnaso

Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614).
Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614).

The prose of the Galatea, which is in other respects so beautiful, is occasionally overloaded with epithet. Cervantes displays a totally different kind of poetic talent in the Viaje del Parnaso, a work which cannot properly be ranked in any particular class of literary composition, but which, next to Don Quixote, is considered by a few the most exquisite production of its author. Many critics, however, would argue with that, citing the Novelas ejemplares and the Entemeses as the finest examples of his work next to Don Quixote.

Plays

Comparisons have also diminished the reputation of his plays, but two of them, El trato de Argel and La Numancia, (1582), made a big impact and were not surpassed until Lope de Vega appeared.

The first of these is written in five acts; based on his experiences as a Moorish captive, Cervantes dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers. The other play, Numancia is a description of the siege of Numantia by the Romans stuffed with horrors and described as utterly devoid of the requisites of dramatic art.

Cervantes's later production consists of 16 dramatic works, among which are eight full-length plays:

El gallardo español, Los baños de Argel, La gran sultana, Doña Catalina de Oviedo, La casa de los celos, El laberinto del jamon, the cloak and dagger play La Entretenida, El rufián dichoso, and finally, Pedro de Urdemalas, a sensitive play about a picaro who joins a group of Gypsies for love of a girl.

He also wrote eight short farces (entremeses) : El juez de los divorcios, El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos, La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo, La guarda cuidadosa (The Vigilant Sentinel), El vizcaíno fingido, El retablo de las maravillas, La cueva de Salamanca, and El viejo celoso (The Jealous Old Man).

These plays and entremeses made up Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos, nunca representados (Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes, Never Before Acted) , which appeared in 1615. Cervantes's entremeses, whose dates and order of composition are not known, must not have been performed in their time. Faithful to the spirit of Lope de Rueda, Cervantes endowed them with novelistic elements such as simplified plot, the type of description normally associated with the novel, and character development. The dialogue is sensitive and agile.

Cervantes includes some of his dramas among those productions with which he was himself most satisfied; and he seems to have regarded them with self-complacency in proportion to their neglect by the public. This conduct has sometimes been attributed to a spirit of contradiction, and sometimes to vanity. That the penetrating and profound Cervantes should have so mistaken the limits of his dramatic talent, would not be sufficiently accounted for, had he not unquestionably proved by his tragedy of Numantia how pardonable was the self-deception of which he could not divest himself.

Cervantes was entitled to consider himself endowed with a genius for dramatic poetry; but he could not preserve his independence in the conflict he had to maintain with the conditions required by the Spanish public in dramatic composition; and when he sacrificed his independence, and submitted to rules imposed by others, his invention and language were reduced to the level of a poet of inferior talent. The intrigues, adventures and surprises, which in that age characterized the Spanish drama, were ill suited to the genius of Cervantes. His natural style was too profound and precise to be reconciled to fantastical ideas, expressed in irregular verse. But he was Spaniard enough to be gratified with dramas, which, as a poet, he could not imitate; and he imagined himself capable of imitating them, because he would have shone in another species of dramatic composition, had the public taste accommodated itself to his genius.

====La Numancia====abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Main article: La Numancia

This play is a dramatization of the long and brutal siege of the Celtiberian town Numantia, Hispania, by the Roman forces of Scipio Africanus.

Cervantes invented along with the subject of his piece a peculiar style of tragic composition, and in doing so, he did not pay much regard to the theory of Aristotle. His object was to produce a piece full of tragic situations, combined with the charm of the marvellous. In order to accomplish this goal, Cervantes relied heavily on allegory and on mythological elements.

The tragedy is written in conformity with no rules save those which the author prescribed to himself; for he felt no inclination to imitate the Greek forms. The play is divided into four acts, (jornadas) and no chorus is introduced. The dialogue is sometimes in tercets and sometimes in redondillas, and for the most part in octaves without any regard to rule.

Cervantes' historical importance and influence

Cervantes: Image from a 19th century German book on the history of literature
Cervantes: Image from a 19th century German book on the history of literature

Cervantes' novel Don Quixote has had a tremendous influence on the development of prose fiction; it has been translated into all modern languages and has appeared in 700 editions. The first translation was in English, made by Thomas Shelton in 1608, but not published until 1612. Shakespeare had evidently read Don Quixote, but it is most unlikely that Cervantes had ever heard of Shakespeare. Carlos Fuentes raised the possibility that Cervantes and Shakespeare were the same person (see Shakespearean authorship question). Francis Carr has suggested that Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays and Don Quixote.[15]

Don Quixote has been the subject of a variety of works in other fields of art, including operas by the Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello, the French Jules Massenet, and the Spanish Manuel de Falla; a tone poem by the German composer Richard Strauss; a German film (1933) directed by G. W. Pabst and a Soviet film (1957) directed by Grigori Kozintsev; a ballet (1965) with choreography by George Balanchine; and an American musical, Man of La Mancha (1965), by Dale Wasserman, Mitch Leigh, and Joe Darion.

Its influence can be seen in the work of Smollett, Defoe, Fielding, and Sterne, as well as in the classic 19th-century novelists Scott, Dickens, Flaubert, Melville, and Dostoevsky, and in the works of James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges.The theme also inspired the 19th-century French artists Honoré Daumier and Gustave Doré.

The Euro coins of €0.10, €0.20 and €0.50 made for Spain bear his portrait and signature.

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

THE CLAIMS
OF
MICHAEL MORAN
AND
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

THIS IS A TRUE STORY

OF

THE DIVINE COUPLE

AND

THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS

ON

 THIS DAY JANUARY 29, 2004 1:00 PM

 MICHAEL RAYMOND MORAN

THE COUSIN

OF

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III 

 CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

VISITED ME AT MY APT IN ALAMEDA, CA AND TOLD ME THINGS HE COULD OF NOT KNOWN THAT WERE IN MY APT SUCH AS THE PICTURES OF HERA AND ZEUS -

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

THIS IS A TRUE STORY

OF

THE DIVINE COUPLE

AND

THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS

ON

 THIS DAY JANUARY 29, 2004 1:00 PM

 MICHAEL RAYMOND MORAN

THE COUSIN

OF

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III 

 CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

VISITED ME AT MY APT IN ALAMEDA, CA AND TOLD ME THINGS HE COULD OF NOT KNOWN THAT WERE IN MY APT SUCH AS THE PICTURES OF HERA AND ZEUS -

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA P

I FEEL THAT JFK,JR  OR LAWRENCE AS JFK,JR

AND

SHARI BROBECK

HAVE BEEN HAVING AN AFFAIR AND HE PAYS HER 5,000.00 EVERY 5 MINUTES FOR BLOW JOBS AND SHE MAKES ABOUT 300,000.00 A DAY DOING THIS AND HAS THE ABILITY WITH THE HELP OF A CHARGER TO ASCEND AND DESCEND FOR HIS PLEASURE WHEN HE WANTS IT

SHE BELIEVE SHE IS THE HOLY SPIRIT AND HERE IS WHY

SHARI WAS HELPING ME MOVE FROM MY HOUSE ON TARRYTON WHERE I WAS JUDGING SPIRITS BECAUSE MY HOUSE WAS ON A MAGNET LAY LINE AND SHE SAW HIM IN MY BEDROOM AND HE WAS A SHADOW PERSON AND GOT SCARED AND RAN DOWN THE HALL TO MY OFFICE AND LEFT

THEN SHARI AND MY MOTHER TEAMED UP TO TAKE ME TO A PARANORMAL DOCTOR BECAUSE THEY THOUGHT I WAS GOING CRAZY AND WANTED ME TO LEAVE MY HOUSE AND THIS MADE LAWRENCE - JFK,JR REALLY MAD AND HE MADE HER SMALL AND TRIED TO PUT HER IN THE CONTAINER OF EVIL IN MY BODY BUT SHE GOT OUT AND STOLE MY ABILITIES TO ASCEND AND DESCEND

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 I HAVE POWER PICTURES OF ANCIENT SYMBOLS HANGING IN A ROOM THAT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN SEEN WHEN YOU FIRST WALK IN

AND

 WE HAVE NOT SPOKEN IN MANY YEARS HE LIVES IN LOS ANGELES 

I ASKED HIM TO FOLLOW ME AND SHOWED HIM WHAT HE WAS ENVISIONING

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA 

I FEEL THAT JFK,JR  OR LAWRENCE AS JFK,JR

AND

SHARI BROBECK

HAVE BEEN HAVING AN AFFAIR AND HE PAYS HER 5,000.00 EVERY 5 MINUTES FOR BLOW JOBS AND SHE MAKES ABOUT 300,000.00 A DAY DOING THIS AND HAS THE ABILITY WITH THE HELP OF A CHARGER TO ASCEND AND DESCEND FOR HIS PLEASURE WHEN HE WANTS IT

SHE BELIEVE SHE IS THE HOLY SPIRIT AND HERE IS WHY

SHARI WAS HELPING ME MOVE FROM MY HOUSE ON TARRYTON WHERE I WAS JUDGING SPIRITS BECAUSE MY HOUSE WAS ON A MAGNET LAY LINE AND SHE SAW HIM IN MY BEDROOM AND HE WAS A SHADOW PERSON AND GOT SCARED AND RAN DOWN THE HALL TO MY OFFICE AND LEFT

THEN SHARI AND MY MOTHER TEAMED UP TO TAKE ME TO A PARANORMAL DOCTOR BECAUSE THEY THOUGHT I WAS GOING CRAZY AND WANTED ME TO LEAVE MY HOUSE AND THIS MADE LAWRENCE - JFK,JR REALLY MAD AND HE MADE HER SMALL AND TRIED TO PUT HER IN THE CONTAINER OF EVIL IN MY BODY BUT SHE GOT OUT AND STOLE MY ABILITIES TO ASCEND AND DESCEND

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 I HAVE POWER PICTURES OF ANCIENT SYMBOLS HANGING IN A ROOM THAT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN SEEN WHEN YOU FIRST WALK IN

AND

 WE HAVE NOT SPOKEN IN MANY YEARS HE LIVES IN LOS ANGELES 

I ASKED HIM TO FOLLOW ME AND SHOWED HIM WHAT HE WAS ENVISIONING

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

 
 
OF WIDSOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA 

"Impossible Dream"

To dream the impossible dream
To fight the unbeatable foe
To bear with unbearable sorrow
And to run where
the brave dare not go
To right the unrightable wrong
And to love pure and chaste from afar
To try when your arms are too weary
To reach the unreachable star
This is my quest
To follow that star
No matter how hopeless
No matter how far
To fight for the right
Without question or pause
To be willing to march,
march into hell
For that heavenly cause
And I know
If I'll only be true
To this glorious quest
That my heart
Will lie peaceful and calm
When I'm laid to my rest
And the world will be
better for this
That one man, scorned
and covered with scars,
Still strove with his last
ounce of courage
To reach the unreachable,
the unreachable,
The unreachable star
And I'll always dream
The impossible dream
Yes, and I'll reach
The unreachable star

NIN-ME-SARA: Lady of countless cosmic powers

This is the first english translation of Dr. Annette Zgoll’s german, academic translation of Nin-me-sara found at the beginning of her book, "Der Rechtsfall der En-hedu-Ana im Lied Nin-me-sara"(1997), "En-Hedu-Ana's Lawsuit in the poem Nin-me-sara". It is a combined effort between myself and Tatjana Dorsch, who has very accessibly translated the whole book for me. It is the most recent, updated translation of Enheduana’s most famous poem since Dr. William Hallo’s grounbreaking translation, "The Exaltation of Inanna" in 1968. Dr. Zgoll has generously given of her time and corrected it and allowed me to post it here.



          1. Queen of all the ME, too numerous to count,
          rising forth as resplendent light [1]

          2. Woman [2], most driven, clothed in frightening radiance,
          loved by An and Uras,

          3. An's nugig [3],
          you are above all the great SUHkese-breastplates,

          4. You, who love the right aga-crown [4],
          who is suited for the en-priest-hood,

          5. empowered with all of its all seven ME --

          6. my queen! You are the guardian of the great ME!

          7. You have uplifted the ME,
          you have held the Me in your hand.

          8 You have gathered the ME,
          you have clasped the ME to your chest.

          9 Like a dragon you cast venom upon the enemy land.

          10 In the regions where you thundered like Iskur,
          Asnan no longer exists because of you

          11 Flooding waters surge down on such an enemy land

          12 You are the supreme one in Heaven and Earth,
          you are their Inana!



[1] This can also connote through homophone and homonym: "Queen of the countless battles, (as) a raging storm rising"

[2] Or we can read the sign of 'munus-zi' as 'zirru': “female”( bird). This is a title of Ningal, that is of Enheduanna.
- Dr. Joan Westenholz has identified zirru as a title of the goddess Ningal, used by Enheduanna in her article, “Enheduanna, En-Priestess, Hen of Nanna,Spouse of Nanna”. In this article she deduces that Enheduanna is endowed with this title of zirru to convey that she is the human embodiment of Ningal.

[3] nugig is a title of Inanna in the context of the exercise of power or the broadening of power, important in the context of legitimization of rulers.
-One of Dr. Zgoll’s theories is that Enheduanna herself, as en-priestess of Nanna in Ur, is endowed with the power to legitimate a king’s rule.

[4] I.e., Inanna loves the aga-crown/cap (object). It can also be read as: the aga-crown/cap (subject) loves Inanna, whereby then the aga metonomycal stands for Nanna, compare chapter 3.4.-- The attribute “right” is the same word as in line 2 “driven” , it can be understood here also as a replacement for ‘thirst for creating’.
(dictionary definition of metonymy- one word is put for another that it suggests; as, we say, a man keeps a good table instead of good food; we read Virgil, that is, his poems; a man has a warm heart, that is, warm affections)





          13 Unceasing raging fire,
          you shower down upon the land of Sumer

          14 Queen, whom An gave the ME,
          you ride atop a beast

          15 Authorized by the fate-determining word of An,
          you utter words.[5]

          16 The great rites are yours--
          who else could fathom their meaning?

          17 Destroyer of enemy lands-
          you empowered the storm

          18. Beloved of Enlil,
          you let terror reign over the land of Sumer

          19. You stood prepared,
          waiting to fulfill the orders of An

          20. My Queen!
          All enemy lands bow down at the sound of your roar!

          21. Under your fearsome radiance,
          your terrible glare and storm, the people

          22. turned their steps toward you in mute dread

          23. -- of all the ME,
          you had grasped the most terrible and deeply stirring--

          24. Mankind [6] opened the gateway of tears, on your account [7]

          25. They must walk the path to the house of all the great laments,
          on your account.[8]



[5] Or: “Who, authorized through the fate-determining mouth of An, says words”.

[6] In reference to nam-lu-ulu (mankind, men) line 21.

[7] literally: “to you” (or because of you)

[8] literally: “to you” (or because of you)



          26. Because of you [9], all [10] had been ripped away
          even before the battle.

          27. My Queen! With your strength a tooth can even crush flint [11]!

          28. Like an invasive storm you barge in.

          29. With the howling storm you howl.

          30. With Iskur you thunder.

          31. With raging thunderstorm you do exhaust,

          32. while your own foot has never yet tired.

          33. With the harp of laments
          one [12] strikes up a song of lamentation

          34. My Queen! The Anuna, the great gods,

          35. Like terrified [13] bats,
          fluttered away from you to the top of the mounds of ruins.

          36. They could not withstand your devastating glance [14].

          37. They cannot stand up against the fright on your brow.



[9] Literally: “to you” . (or because of you)

[10] Arms, troups, idols, fighting strength etc...

[11] In Sumerian dictionary tooth--tartar.

[12] Referring to nam-lu-ulu (“mankind”, “men”).

[13 ] Literally: “flying around”.

[14] Variant writing: “they cannot withstand”.



          38. Who shall soothe your angry heart?[15]

          39. Your hostile heart has become too violent to pacify!

          40. Queen, has your soul [16] really been satisfied?
          Queen, is your heart really now filled with joy?

          41. Your rage does not cool, great daughter of Suen! [17]

          42. Queen, greater than the enemy land--
          who would dare take away any of your territory? [18]

          43 You take the ‘mountain range’ [19] into your territory:
          its Asnan is no longer.[20]

          44 Fire was set against its great gate. [21]

          45 Blood flowed in its river for you,
          its people had to drink it for you. [22]

          46 Their troops, all gathered together, [23]
          had to surrender themselves to you.

          47 Even their elite troups, united together,
          had to be struck down for you.

          48 Even their strong men- all of them,
          had to stand before you [24]

          49 In the town’s places of pleasure, a storm rages.

          50 They hunt down their best men as captives for you.



[15] Literally ‘cool’ with connotation ‘refresh’.

[16] Literally also “liver”, “stomach’.

[17] Another translation possibility: “Rage (glowing) and not cooling,
great daugher of Suen!”

[18] Literally: “your earth”.

[19] Compare chapter 3.6.2.

[20] Some texts: “When you.... the ‘mountain ranges’” LaC: “you looked angrily upon
the enemy land , ....”; UnH “When you looked angrily at the enemy land”.

[21] UrB: “in ihre (their, her, your) great temple”.

[22] 2 text segments: “they have nothing to drink”.

[23] Other translation possibility, also in the following lines” “in their fear”.

[24] NiW: “stood in front of you”.



          51. The city, which would not say “This land is yours!” [25]

          52. where the people did not say “He is your loving father!”--

          53. He has spoken your fate-determining word [26]:
          the territory is restored beneath your foot.

          54. Then care [27] disappears from within,
          from their stall.

          55. That woman there -
          she no longer speaks of love with her spouse.

          56. At night she no longer holds counsel with him.

          57. She no longer reveals her innermost self to him ,
          which holds the hope of future life[28].

          58. Aggressive wild cow, great daughter of Suen,

          59. Queen, greater than heaven-
          who would dare take any of your territories away from you?



[25] NiMM and LaB: “The enemy city, which has not said “To you

[26] Variant: “ spoken from your fate-determining word”.

[27] Another word variant yielded the translation: “from the mother love”.
Literal translation: “Then... the foot is slipped”.

[28] Literally: “the fate-determining thing of her insides”.



          60 The Great queen (NIN.GAL) of queens,
          born for the rightful [29] ME,

          61 born of a fate-laden body,
          you are even greater than your own mother,

          62 full of wisdom, foresight, queen over all lands,

          63. who allows existence to many,
          I now strike up your fate-determining song!

          64 All powerful divinity, suitable for the ME,
          that which you have said magnificently is the most powerful! [31]

          65. Of unfathomable heart [32], oh highly driven woman [33],
          of radiant heart, your ME [34], I will list for you now!

          66. Into my fate-determining Gipar [35], I had entered for you.

          67. I, the en-priestess, I, En-hedu-Ana [36].

          68. While I carried the basket, I struck up the song of jubilation,

          69. as though I had not lived there [38],
          they offered the death sacrifice. [37]

          70. I came close to the light,
          there the light became scorching to me.

          71. I came close to the shadow,
          there it was veiled by a storm.

          72. My sweet mouth became venomous [39].

          73. That with which I gave delight, turned to dust.



[29] See the opening of line 4: the adjective “right” also comprises the connotation
of true powerfulness.

[30] The goddess Ningal. Literally: “as her own mother”.

[31] Simultaneously valid to the version: ”What you have spoken in as great a manner,
is the ‘most powerful’.”, i.e. “No one can become more praised than you”.

[32] By the use of “heart” the connotation of “Anger” from the context of line 38-41is
not to be overlooked.

[33] NiRR: ‘zirru’, “(bird)woman”; this version is also possible in the parallel text.
It is a title of Ningal, that is, Enheduanna; compare with chapter 6.1.

[34]NiRR: “the fate-deciding ME.” LaB, UnC: ”the rightful ME”.

[35] A part of the temple complex of the moongod in Ur, which encompasses the
residence of the en-Priestess and the shrine of Ningal.

[36] The name means translated “En,Ornament of An”. Compare to chapter 4.5.

[37] UrB, UrG, LaB, write euphemistically instead “the beautiful place”. NiRR: “One of
them has set down my meal (for the gods)”. NiA: “.....one of them offered, on his account
as if I had never lived there.”

[38] Literally: “Haven’t I not lived there?”

[39] This version is in Text NiC and Text NiHHH, all other texts have one of the
homophonic expressions. NiRR writes “bitter”.



          74. My fate with Suen and Lugal-Ane,

          75. report it to An!
          May An resolve it for me!

          76. Report it to An immediately.
          An will resolve it for us!

          77 "The Lady will tear away the destiny of Lugal-Ane.

          78. At her feet lie hostile land and flood.

          79. She is truly mighty-
          she will make the town tremble before her.

          80. Go (before the court),
          so that she will be calm in her heart for me!"[40]

          81. En-hedu-Ana am I,
          I will now say a prayer to you.

          82. My tears, like sweet beer

          83. I now shed them freely for you, fate-determining Inana,
          "Your judgement!" I will say to you. [41]

          84. As for ASimbabbar,
          concern yourself not!

          85. While changing the purfication rites of the fate-determining An,
          he [42:Lugalane] altered everything for him,

          86. he tore away the Eana from An!

          87. He showed no awe for the most venerable God (AN)!

          88. This house, whose abundance he [43:AN] was not sated with,
          whose beauty he had not tasted,

          89. he [44:Lugalane] turned this house into a despised home for him!

          90. All the while, upon entering, as if he were the companion,
          he approached me with envy! [45]

          91. My driven, divine, wild cow!
          You must drive away this 'someone',
          you must seize this 'someone'!

          92. In this place where life is made possible--
          what am I?

          93. This rebellious territory, despised by your Nanna:
          An should force them to surrender!

          94. This city-- An should strike it down!

          95. Enlil should curse it!

          96. The mother shall not soothe her crying child!



[40] In other texts: "so that she calms her heart for me."

[41] NiA, LaB: "Be hailed", UrD "The Judge!"/"Pass judgement!", Niff "(you) attacked".

[42] Meaning Lugal-Ane. see chapter 5.2 and 5.3.

[43] Meaning the God, An.

[44] Meaning Lugal-Ane .

[45] Literally:"his envy".



          97. Queen! The laments which were struck up over the land, [46]

          98. your ship of wailing should be left behind in the enemy land! [47]

          99. And because of my fate-determining song -- must I die? [48]

          100. I-- my Nanna has cared not for me [49].

          101. In the rebellious land,
          they completely and utterly destroyed me.

          102. ASimbabbar most certainly has not passed a final judgement upon me!

          103. Has he spoken it-- does it mean anything?
          Has he not spoken it-- does it mean anything?

          104. After he stood there in triumph,
          he expelled me from the temple.

          105. He made me fly like a swallow from the window-
          my life was consumed --[50]

          106. and so I must go to the thorny undergrowth of the enemy land.

          107. He tore the rightful aga-crown [51] of en-ship from me.

          108. Handing me a dagger, he said,
          "This is now your ornament!" [52]

          109. One and only Queen, beloved of An,

          110. Mighty is your fate-determining heart,
          for my sake, may it be turned to its place! [53]

          111. Beloved wife of Usumgal-Ana [54],

          112. From the base to the zenith of heaven,
          you are the great Queen (NIN.GAL),

          113. the Anuna have submitted to you.

          114. From birth you were the smaller queen,

          115. the Anuna, all the great gods--
          how you have surpassed them!

          116. The Anuna kiss the ground before you with their lips.

          117. My own trial is not yet over,
          but a stranger sentence surrounds me as though it were my sentence.



[46] Or: "the lamentations, which were established".

[47] LaB: "should be approached".

[48] LaB: "they will die".

[49] UrB: "has not decided [my] verdict".

[50] NiU, NiDD: "He consumed my life."

[51] UnB: "the right garment".

[52] 2nd Version: "This will be pushed against you (like horns of a bull)”.

[53] This turn (idiom) is a regular formula of the heart-soothing of the gods,
which in this context agrees with the similar sounding:
"may it be ... turned to its territories".

[54] NiRR:"The beloved wife of An [has...], beloved [ ] of Ama[-sumgal-Ana]".



          118. To the radiant bed [55],
          I did not stretch out my hand.

          119. Nor did I reveal the words of Ningal to that 'someone' [56].

          120. The radiant en -priestess of Nanna am I.

          121. My Queen, beloved of An [57],
          may your heart be calmed for me.

          122. It shall be known, it shall be known:
          Nanna has proclaimed no decree,
          "It is yours" is what he has said!

          123. That you are as high as heaven, shall be known!

          124. That you are as wide as the earth, shall be known!

          125. That you anhilate rebelling territiories [58], shall be known!

          125a. That you roar against the enemy lands, shall be known!

          126. That you crush the leaders, shall be known!

          127. That you devour corpses like a predator, shall be known!

          128. That your glance is terrible, shall be known!

          129. That you raise your terrible glance, shall be known!

          130. That your glance is sparkling, shall be known!

          131. That you are unshakable and unyielding, shall be known!

          132. That you always stand triumphant, shall be known!

          133. That Nanna has not proclaimed (the decree),
          that he has said, "It is yours",

          134. my Queen- it has made you greater,
          you have become the greatest!

          135. My Queen, beloved of An,
          I will announce all of your wrath![59]

          136. I have heaped the coals,
          prepared the purification rites,

          137. The Esdam-ku [60] stands ready for you-
          will not your heart calm down for me? [61]

          138. Since the heart was full, too full,
          great Queen, I birthed it for you. [62]

          139. What was said to you at midnight,

          140. the cult singer shall repeat it to you at midday:

          141. "Because of your captive spouse,
          because of your captive protégé,

          142. your anger has grown large,
          your heart has not calmed down."



[55] NiDD:"In my radiant bed".

[56] UrB:"I will not say anything to him".

[57] NiA, UnB: "You are the beloved queen of An"

[58] UrA, LaC: kur.

[59] NiYY:"before your throne".

[60] The name of the Inana-temple in Girsu/Lagas;
beside it is also professed a place in various Inana-temples.

[61] Other texts:"May your heart be calmed/refreshed for me!"

[62] The meaning is first of all the text of NMS itself;
for a broader translation compare with Chapter 7.2.



          143 The Queen, the strong one,
          the ruler over the gathering of the 'en' [63],

          144 she did accept her prayer and sacrifice [64] .

          145 The heart of fate-determining Inana has turned to its place.

          146 The light was sweet for her, delight was spread over her,
          full of abundant beauty was she.

          147 As the light of the rising moon (NANNA),
          she too was clothed in enchantment.

          148 Nanna came out [65] to rightfully gaze (at her) in awe,

          149 (he and) her mother Ningal blessed her,

          150 and then the gate post said unto her "Be hailed!"

          151 What each said to the nugig is exalted.

          152 Destroyer of enemy lands,
          endowed with the ME from An,

          153 My Queen, draped in enchantment,
          (to you) Inana be glory!



[63] 'en' is a title for priests and rulers.

[64] In Sumerian this is only one lexeme. (=word)

[65] Another possible translation: (he) "led her out".

I have added a few explanations of her research in italics beneath some of the footnotes. For those unfamiliar with the Sumerian terms, Dr. Zgoll’s literary paraphrase will be most helpful and I will be posting it in the near futur. I have also taken the liberty in presenting the long lines of the poem as shorter pairs of lines whenever possible, to facilitate reading the poem. ---------------------------------------



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