H I S T O R Y
C A N T A L U P O nel Sannio
I T A L Y
All Crivellones are from this village.
A view of the village of Cantalupo from the base of Mount Monta.
The church's tower is clearly
Every Crivellone despite what they believe can trace their roots to
the small mountain village of Cantalupo (Singing Wolf) in the province of Molise. Molise is located northeast of Naples, Italy.
The village sits at the base of Mount Monta in the heart of the mountain range that runs down the middle of Italy. The largest
towns on most maps are Isernia, about 18 kilometers north and Campobasso, 39 kilometers south.
View with snow-capped mountains in June
taken from the main road, about l km from the village.
I have a database of over 1,000 Crivellones (including descendants and
spouses and Barbieris - gradmother and mother's side). My data base includes everyone with the name Crivellone that
I have found (so far), from around the world (including descendants and spouses). At the present time I have seven separate
families of Crivellones. By far the largest group is the one that I am a member of that starts with a gentleman called Agnello
- 863. The numbers following names are those assigned by my computer program.
I am anxious to continue to learn about the members of our family and tie the separate families together.
I have made great progress bringing all the names I have down to seven families. However I have a feeling that one day I (or
some other Crivellone) may tie all the Crivellones to one or two Crivellones. It is documented that a Aniello Crivellone
lived in this village in 1510 - he may be the start of us all. After reading the very brief history of Cantalupo below, visit
the Crivellone Home Page
One problem in doing research is that the municpal records in most of Italy stated in 1809, three years
after the feuds ended. The church records of course go back over 400 years. Unfortunately in 1805 a very severe earthquake
destroyed all the church records in Cantalupo.
For the record, and to avoid confusion, there are ten Cantalupo villages in Italy. One Cantalupo
is located just outside of Milan and they have a web page - Cantalupo - Milan area. I have developed a pen pal relationship with the webmaster of the page. "Our" Cantalupo added the term
"nel Sannio" on November 20, 1862.
Visit The Bertone Family with an excellent detailed history of Molise and villages very close to Cantalupo.
Cantalupo is located in the province of Molise..
Cantalupo - Maps - Visiting this site will give one the overall view of a large portion of Italy and another map the details
of the location of Cantalupo.
Cantalupo - "The Singing Wolf"
The Stemma (viillage coat of arms)
A History of Cantalupo nel Sannio
Two university students - Ferdinando Salvatore and Giuseppe Fratangelo - wrote (in Italian) a
thesis on Cantalupo. It was published by Tip. L'Economica - Campobosso - Tel. 60262
The purpose of this book is to supply a panoramic view, within our limits, of a Molise town, which has gone through a dramatic
reality throughout centuries in which emigration has reached incredible peaks.
This is certainly not an isolated case confirmed only to our Molise, and it is for this reason that
in our research we could find more complex situations which are not known in the Molise history.
It is also far away the pretex to have exhausted our research. We wanted to create an incentive for
the lovers of our Molise to further pursue the richness and natural history of our land. Our region has good prospectives
for tourism, and the awareness of all the Molise history could further assist to the development of this industry.
We have tried to report the facts we felt important without expecting to find all the answers and give
all the logical ties among facts.
It is part of history to fulfill with fantasy what we have not been able to find in our stories.
We hope that the work will be appreciated by our reader friends.
HISTORIC POINTS ON CANTAUPO
The Name. As of this date historians have not been able to give an exact explanation of the name Cantalupo.
The most credible version is the one that derives from "Can," word used in the primative language, now totally gone, which
meant "water way" - not too far from Cantalupo, in fact, there is a river call Rio River.
This hypothesis is supported by a similar interpretation give to various towns in Puglia; Canne; Candela;
Canosa, and other towns in Sicily, a word probably derived from the Arabic language that meant "spring water."
It is the only town in Molise that has this name. In Italy there are: Cantalupo in Sabina (Perugia),
Cantalupo Ligure (Alessandria) and Cantalupo (Torino). (Don Crivellone - in fact there are ten Cantalupos in Italy) On November
20, 1862 to the name Cantalupo was added "Nel Sannio" and approved by the city, became effective on February 4, 1864.
THE ORIGINS OF CANTALUPO
The birth of Cantalupo is as dark as the night. It has been impossible to establish with certainly
the date. It probably goes back to the Lombards' domination. The area belongs to the Isernia Shire, on of the 34 shires when
the Ducat of Benevento was divided in 571.
In the 10th century, a citizen of Cantalupo by the name of Berardo Conte of Isernia, gave as a gift
to his son Radoisio the cities of Agnone, Cantalupo and Caccavone. The gift certificate is reported by Ughelli in his book
Cantalupo, as other towns of Molise, could be considered as a fortress where the feudal nobels took
refuge when in danger, and it also constitued a great revenue.
A definite existence of Cantalupo is reported in a document dated 1015, where it is said that Leone,
priest of Boiano, donated to the Montecassino monastery the St. Andrea church, located in Cantalupo.
Based on this information, it could be confirmed that the date reported by Masciotta of 1011 is not
correct. Ciarlanti, from whom, with probability, Misciotta obtained the information, was makin reference to the year when
Atenolfo, son of Pandolfo, prince of Benevento, becam Abate.
In the "Cassinese Reprot" of Leone Marsicano, besides the year 1015 it is also mentioned the date of
April 18th. The gift, in fact, was givenby priest Leone and not by Bishop Leone. From the Bonifacio Garus listing, no bishop
was elected during the period 501 to 1061.
In the same "Cassinese Report" it is mentioned of a priest Leone who, together with other priests,
donated the churches of San Salvatore and San Cristoforo di Castel Petroso.
CANTALUPO FROM THE NORMANS TO THE END OF FEUDS
In the middle of the XI century with the occupation by the Normans of Sicily and Naples, Cantalupo
became part of Molise.
In the "Catalogo Borrelliamo" is reported that half of the city of Cantalupo belonged to Guglielmo
da Pesclo (now Pesche). The other half was of Raone di Cantalupo who lived until 1188. The Cantalupo family was probably a
ramification derived from the Borrello count of Agnone and named after the city of Cantalupo.
The family Cantalupo is mentioned by Capocelatro in the Angioina period, and present at the Naples
parliament was a Ruggero Cantalupo.
During the Norman domination, emperor Arrigo VI (1194-97) assigned parts of Cantalupo's territory to
the brothers Rinaldo and Fortebraccio Acquaviva.
During the reign of Carlo of Angio', the Acquavivas were deprived of their share of the feud in their
possession which was distributed among other families such as the D'Annas, the Capuanos, the Santangelos, the Primeranos,
and the Sanfromondos. The Cantalupo family during this period still had part of the feud.
As you can see, Cantalupo has always been a feud divided among various households, and this makes it
difficult to establish the exact reconstruction of the genealogy of the owners of this feud.
What we can reconstruct is that Guido Primerano in 1303 sold his share to Francesco Acquaviva and that
the Sanfromodos and Giacomomo, kept their share until 1465, and that Filippo Santangelo sold his share to Matteo Capuana.
During the reign of Carlo II of Angio' (1285-1309), Gentile and Ottone of Letto and Fulcro Roccafoglia
were the owners of the feud.
We know that a share of the feud was later owned, at least from 1330 to 1381, by Gualtiero of S. Agapito
and by his son Nicola. These new families probably substituted, except for the Sanfromondos, the previous families.
We have reason to believe that the Sanfromondos were able to unify the feud since we know that Niccolo,
Antonello and Jacopo Sanfromondo were deprived of the feud by Ferrrante.
We reject the hypothesis that the Capuanos were the ones to unify the feud as Masciotta stipulated.
In fact, it seems that the successor of the Sanfromondos was Berardo Gaspare of Aquino, marquis of Pescara, who stayed in
Cantalupo until 1486.
In 1486, Francesco of Bastariis, a Pisan patrician, bought the feud. After his death in 1522 his son
Giuseppe took over.
In 1536, Dianora Sperandeo was the owner of Cantalupo, who in the same year sold the feud to Pirro
Antonio of Costanzo. The latter took in Angelo of Costanzo, a relative, poet and historian, who had been exiled from Naples
by the Viceroy of Toledo.
When Pirro Antonio of Costanzo died, his wife Eleonora of Corrado asked the court permission to sell
the feud, and having obtained the permission, Cantalupo was put up for auction and was bought by Luigi of the Marra.
The next year, Luigi of the Marra sold Cantalupo to Emilio Sanchez, whose family had come to Molise
from Spain at the time of the viceroy.
In 1574, Luigi Sanchez, son of Emilio, sold Cantalupo to Maria Carafa who in turn sold it in 1577 to
Scipione of Costanzo.
In 1605 Cantalupo was put up for sale by the creditors of the house of Costanzo and was bought by Francesco
of Pisa. He kept it until 1618. At this time it was bought by Stefano Cattaneo.
Around 1627, Eugenio Cattaneo sold Cantalupo to Andrea of Gennaro for the sum of 18,000 ducati.
The Gennaros attained in 1632 the ducal title and remained in the feud of Cantalupo until the end of
We note here the names of the owners in the Gennaro family that we know of:
Andrea of Gennaro, alive in 1648, died in Spain before 1656. In his diary is mentioned Antonia
of Gennaro, duchess of Cantalupo, may be his wife.
Andrea junior, alive in 1753.
Antonio, Andrea's heir, born in Naples 9-27-1717, son of Andrea and Marianna Brancaccio of the Ruffano
dukes. He died the 21st of January 1791 in the palace of his ancestors in Margellina.
The last duke of Cantalupo was Domenico, son of Antonio, economy scholar, who was condemned for his
free ideas and sentenced by the Giunto di Stato on 3-28-1800 to two years imprisonment in a castle, to be spent in exile.
TheGennaro family vanished with two brothers who died bachelors and with a sister who inherited the
title and who married one of the Morras.
The majority of the cities in Molise were born with the rise of feudalism in Italy.
Their position and their lay out are the proof.
In order to have access to the inhabited area, it was necessary, in those time, to cross the doors
that led to that area.
The layout of the old Cantalupo lets us assume that such doors existed which, thoughout the centuries,
have disappeared. Even now we can ascertain the presence of an encircling wall and of towers no longer standing.
The castle, from which the lord dominated, represented the center of social and economical life of
The function of the feudal lord, at first, was a positive one, because it assured the defense of the
cities, and it made up for the lack of power. Subsequently, however, it became an action of oppression which in time increased.
The local feudal lords were joined by foreign lords, who used their noble titles to economically exploit
the feud, while they maintained their residence somewhere else. It's easy then to suppose that in the Molise, due to the modest
residences, lived castaldi or administrators. This was verified from the times of the Angioini, who assigned the feuds to
their followers when they occupied the South.
Such phenomenon in the South continued for many centuries.
In the XVI and XVII centuries, the oppression on the part of the barons forced the peasants to sustain
rigorous impositions without enjoying in return the lands that they worked, without considering the presence of the clergy.
At the beginning of 1700, in the Kingdom of Naples, of 2265 communes, only 59 where under the jurisdiction
of the king, the others depended on the power of the Barons.
In 1700, Molise was also damaged by the trade policies of Carlo III, as Naples and other cities began
to get grain from other areas.
With the destruction of feudalism, in the time of Giuseppe Bonaparte, the social and economical conditions,
instead of improving, rapidly became worse. In fact, with the redistributing of the state's properties, those who gained were
not the peasants but the land owners.
Not ever after 1860, with the unification of the Molise region to the United Kingdom, have the conditions
of the peasants bettered. The phenomenon of brigandage and of emigration are consequences of such hardship.
QUARRELS BETWEEN CANTALUPO AND S. MASSIMO IN 1500
The quarrels between the two cities that we are about to describe have to be placed in the time when
the war between the Spanish and French over the ruling of the peninsula had already been going on for twenty years, and when
the in he South, upset over the descent of Carlo VIII from the throne, a central government did not exist, and justice and
law were in the hands of the Barons.
Today, what we are about to present to the young might seem ridiculous, but the older people will certainly
remember having heard from their parents, that fierce quarrels and fights happened even in recent time like the ones we are
going to deal with, sometimes just for the smallest piece of land.
The scarcity of woodland and pastureland often induced the cities that lacked these lands to turn to
cities whose geographic position allowed a better economy. When this would happen, ferocious quarrels would result, quarrels
We need to keep in mind that these people lived on very little and could not afford the luxury to make
even the minimal concession. In an economic situation where everything is concentrated in the hands of a few, it becomes difficult
even to find a little bit of wood to warm up with, and it is necessary to take it away from those who have it.
With this brief introduction, the events that follow could assume a particular meaning and take us
back to the social-economical context of the era.
The disagreement between Cantalupo and S. Massimo in 1525 has for its subject the geographic position
of the two cities and the different economy of the two cities that forces the Cantalupesi to take advantage of what the territory
of S. Massimo has to offer.
In fact, while S. Massimo has a woodland system with the district of S.Camillo, Selva Grande, Selva
of the Castelluccia, Selva of the Faggi and the pastureland on Monta mountain, Cantalupo did not have any of these gifts of
The clash happened in 1525. The news and the documents can be found in a passage of the Carano (Almanacco
del Molise 1976).
Here are the facts: Sebastiano Mastrocola, the watchman of don Camillo Gaetani, baron of S. Massimo,
finds Francesco and Tommaso Marella and Agostino di Suolo of Cantalupo picking up wood among the oak trees on Monta mountain,
and gets beat up by them while defending the woods of his master.
This is not the end of it, as various formal protests are sent to the baron of Cantalupo, Don Giulio
Gaetani, meanwhile, strengthens his property with armed men to discourage the Cantalupesi from coming
on his lands.
The conflict, however, is in the air, and the occasion presents itself when the baron of Cantalupo
requests recognition of his city's boundary with a plan made in his favor.
The baron of S. Massimo rejects the plan, followed by an exchange of insults and threats, to which
the facts follow:
The clash occurs near " Cese Maretella."
The Cantalupese are lead by Federico of Bastariis and by the squadron leaders don ANIELLO CRIVELLONE
and don Marco of Gaglia, while those of S. Massimo are lead by don Camillo Gaetani and by squadron leader Giovanbattista Selvaggi.
The Cantalupese at first fall into a trap but then are able to somehow defend themselves and get a
grip on the situation, but at the end they commit a grave error which is to follow the enemy into the woods, and not being
familiar with the surroundings, are defeated.
Here is the documentation: "In the year 1525, a dispute started between the two castles for the boundaries
of the territories, which caused great hostility and up‚_roar among the citizens of said castles; they fought, and in
the fight participated don Camillo Gaetano of S. Massimo and Giulio di Bastariis of Cantalupo.
The citizens of S. Massimo were stronger and many from Cantalupo were injured including Federico of
Bastariis, son of the baron, who died from his injuries. And because God, maker of peace, inspired them to calm down and unite,
they held meetings in S. Massimo where Cantlupo was represented by don Giulio of Bastariis and where they tried to establish
some ground rules for the boundaries. "
Here are some of the clauses of the agreement: "Any animal found on the mountains of Camillo Gaetani
will have to pay a penalty; the one with a bell will have to pay 15 carlini, and the one without the bell, 5 carlini." Evidently,
the animal with a bell has to pay 10 carlini more for the noise it makes.
The peace will not last, because necessity does not pay attention to treaties, and the quarrels will
end only when in 1600 Andrea of Gennaro purchases the feud of Cantalupo from Cattaneo and unites the two cities establishing
a peace that will last until 1806, the date when feudalism ends.
In conclusion it is not difficult to deduce from what we have presented that these conflicts were due
to the poverty in Molise which would then force people to fight for scarce resources. The search for lands rich of woodland
meant to be able to have wood and to graze the animals. From this stems the necessity to go out of the boundaries such as
the attempt of the baron of Cantalupo against the baron of S. Massimo which had the sad ending of shed blood that we have
LIFE IN THE 1500s
In the 1500s there are smaller feudal families. Many families, by way of purchase, insert themselves
in the feud, so changing the aspect of the feud to one of investment and source of income.
So, the conditions of life in the 1500s notably worsened. As Lalli states, "the landowner administers
justice, he can hold citizens in the dungeons of his castle as he wishes, he can impose taxes of any kind, he can ask for
free labor from anyone, he can order the people to use his mill and his oven.
To the abuses of the landowners we can add more from those in charge of collecting taxes or from those
who hold other offices, because the office positions are sold, and those who take over try to regain what they have paid so
as to advance themselves economically."
In fact, in some documents found by Carano, we can read, "The citizens of said land (Cameli) could
build an oven on their lands and vineyards, and they could use it, but only to make dried pears and dried fruit and nothing
else... He who tried to bake bread or to lend the oven to someone else to make dried pears or dried fruit free of charge was
fined 20 carlini." Later on, though, with the establishment of the communes, which do not force the landowners to respect
the laws, the citizens take it into their hands to establish a rapport with the landowners. The are primarily concerned with
protecting their lands and their animals; the reasons for these requests are to defend themselves from usurpation of the state's
lands on the part of landowners.
This is the first step on the part of the middle class (la borghesia) to the assault, which will come
later, on the state's lands. But the requests go beyond these; they ask for limitations on free work, and they ask not to
be forced to use the mill and the oven of the baron.
Let's look at some of the concessions that the baron has to make. Carano says: "The territory called
Lo Monte Propre Castrum, property of the commune of Castelpizzuto, will be sold or rented as property of the commune, and
the commune can dispose of it as it wishes.... without any contradictions from the landlords. "
The Renaissance is also felt in the Molise. Many castles are transformed and bettered, and private
residences assume different structures.
Something was slowly changing even in the Molise.
CANTALUPO DURING THE FRENCH RULE
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy with his troops, a sudden spirit of liberty spread throughout
our towns. General Championnet, on the 22nd of January 1799, occupied Naples and declared it a republic. The Bourbon Court
fled to Palermo. Many Molisani, believing in the promises of the French, joined them to fight against the Bourbons. But very
soon they found themselves betrayed and disillusioned. Perrella comments: "The pains suffered this year because of the French
have been incredible. The sackings, the extortion's during the anarchy reached the limit." Each town was forced to contribute
money and provide supplies to maintain the French troops. The 18th of January, the mayor of Cantlupo, Don Domenico Martellie,
returning from Isernia, where he had gone to pay taxes to commissioner Vischi for the French, was killed by the French because
he had beaten up a French soldier who had insulted him.
The 14th of May, Andrea Monaco President, municipal officer of Cantalupo, had to pay 90 ducats, 10
bushels of hay, 5 hams, 40 chickens, 200 eggs, 4 wethers, 30 rolls of lard, for a value of 7555 ducati, to the passing French
troops. But the Republic did not have a long life. In May alarming news came out of Naples. It was said that the French would
soon leave. Nicola Neri, General Commissioner of the Department left for the capital and returned a few days later to confirm
the news. He said that the majority of the troops stationed in Naples had left, and those in Benevento had done the same,
and that Cardinal Ruffo was advancing towards the capital with his troops. A few days later, DeCesare, the cardinal's lieutenant
occupied Campobasso. During the stay of the royal troops in the province, many communes, besides Campobasso, had to contribute
to maintain the troops. Cantalupo was also forced to give its share: "20 ducati for the passage of the royal troops through
Isernia; 350 ducati to three officials of the troops; 16 ducati to the lieutenant; to the 100 riflemen, 1350 ducati." From
stories of Cantalupo. In September of 1799 King Ferdinand returned to Naples. Many republicans were exiled, other were killed,
and, among them, many from the province of Molise.
CANTALUPO DURING THE XIX CENTURY
During the time of the republic, the ex kingdom was divided into departments and cantons. With the
law of the 9th of February 1799, the continental territory was divided in 11 departments. Each department was divided in many
cantons and each canton included various communes. Most of our province, under this law, was part of the 5th department, which
was called Sangro. This department was made up of 16 cantons: Lanciano, Ortona, Palena, Atessa, Peconcostanzo, Castel di Sangro,
Agnone, Baranello, Campobasso, La Riccia, Trivento, Larino, Termoli, Serra Capriola, Dragonara and Vasto. Cantalupo was part
of the Baranello canton, along with Colledanchise, Boiano, S. Polo, R. Mandolfi, S. Massimo, Macchiagodena, Li Camini (Sant'Elena),
Rocca Aspromonte, Castropignano, Fossasecca, S. Stefano, Oratino, Busso, Vinchiaturo, Campobasso and Guardia. The 27th of
September 1806, with the decree of King Giuseppe Napoleone, the Molise region became a province all by itself, with two districts
of Campobasso and Isernia, to which, with the reform of 1811 was added the district of Larino. The province of Molise had
as its capital the city of Campobasso (May 4, 1811). Isernia has only recently become a province... in 1970. In 1807, Cantalupo
became part of the district of Isernia, which is now Circondario. The 11th of August 1815, it became the capital of Circondario,
now Mandamento, and the communes of Roccamandolfi, Macchiagodena, S. Angelo in Grotte and Castelpizzuto were under her jurisdiction.
This situation remained unchanged until 1892, when, because of the law of July 31, the districts of Carpinone and Castelpetroso
were eliminated and became part of this area. The district of Cantalupo used to send only one representative to the province's
THE PHENOMENON OF BRIGANDAGE
In order to give a constructive picture of this brigandage, we must give a brief description of the
economic and social situation that preceded it. We are able to present a picture of the civil conditions of the citizens of
Cantalupo in 1811. Zarrilli furnishes us with the following information: "There were 414 land owners, those employed in the
liberal arts were 10. The number of priests was large considering the number of citizens; there were, in fact, 5 priests.
There were no friars. The largest group was made up by the contadini (country workers); there were 509. Finally, there were
13 beggars, one artist and one servant." In the years between 1821 and 1845, the livestock in the Molise declined drastically:
from 300,000 sheep, 7,500 cows, 85,000 pigs, we have 100,000 sheeps, about 4,000 cows and 30,000 pigs. If we think that the
livestock was not only a source of income but also a way of fertilizing the land, we can deduce that even the land had become
As a consequence, the yearly yields were low, and the contadini were in debt, to the advantage of the
middle class. They ate very little, if at all, and many lost their homes and had nowhere to go to take shelter with their
families. In this social and economic situation, as Arduino writes: "The only occasion to meet was the church: they went in
masses, attracted by the pompous religious functions; the fairs were the only occasions for leaving the town. "Garibaldi's
quest created hope for a total change in the political and social situation. In fact, at the beginning of the Mille's undertaking,
there was hope of revenge for all the injustices suffered. However, since Garibaldi was too preoccupied with the idea of liberating
Rome, he left the conquered church lands without a plan of division, allowing some members of the bourgeoisie to take over,
and when some of the contadini occupied some of the lands, they were ferociously repressed: famous is the repression at Bronte
lead by Nino Bixio.
A similar uprising by the contadini took place all over the territory of Isernia. The uprising of Cantalupo
was led by Petrarca Giacinto and by the priest Perrella. In the clash at Castelpetroso 140 garibaldini were taken prisoners,
along with two flags, horses and provisions. This situation, aggravated by the attitude of conquerors on the part of the Piedmontese
soldiers and by the political blindness of the Piedmontese government, generated the phenomenon of brigandage. We are speaking
of political blindness, because they were not aware that after the abolition of the existing customs barriers, the industries
of the North had prostrated the few industries to the artisan level of the South in general and to the Molise in particular.
So, brigandage was an act of rebellion on the part of the contadini, who formed armed groups, against the gentlemen of the
The bourgeoisie ignored this phenomenon by considering it an act of pure delinquency, while many were
forced to grab their guns as the only way to save themselves. It is necessary to add that the contadini often went overboard,
and that sometimes they would direct their rage towards the innocent, but all of these events took place in an atmosphere
of vendetta which had arisen in the Molise following the annexation to Piedmont. "The good germs, states Jovine, don't have
the chance to multiply; their desperate life does not give rest to the soul. Crime becomes a necessity of defense, and the
atrocious examples of inhumane acts which they witness everyday, extinguish in them any hope for a better life. Slowly forgetting
the sentimental and social motives or simply the miserable circumstances which led them into that type of life, their crimes
became a sort of ferocious monotony, and many of the rebels became thieves and common delinquents."
The groups of brigands were numerous, and it would be idle to list them all with their deeds. We will
look at the Cecchino Domenicangelo and Cimino Samuele group, which raged in the Cantalupo area. We have to ask ourselves who
were these brigand leaders. Zarilli provides us with an exhaustive picture: "Domemicangelo Cecchino, an illiterate cantadino,
had been a Bourbon soldier and had fought at Garigliano in favor of the staggering rule of Franscesco II. Disbanded, he had
returned to his native town, and her the persecutions on the part of the Carabinieri had begun, forcing him into the life
of an outlaw.
The same thing happened to Cimino, also a disbanded soldier, a poor coal man. When he returned to his
town, he was not allowed to work, he was oppressed in a thousand ways, and he was beaten. The fact that he had been part of
the bourbon army was continuously thrown into his face. Like Cecchino he hid in the woods and thought about revenge against
his persecutors. We also have a physical description of Ceccino given to us by Perrella, which we faithfully report: "He was
short, slim, thin; he had a sulky face without hair, a pug nose, fierce eyes, ashen coloring, and overall, he was a disgusting
figure. More agile than a squirrel, smarter than a fox, with a wicked soul and an insensible heart, he was terror of Matese
and of the surrounding communes." Cimino was the lover of Cecchino's sister, who followed the group in all their undertakings.
Before we go into their criminal undertakings, let's look at two written requests that were made by
the brigands, as reported by P. Nobile: "Mr. D. Carlo, you are asked to send us 200 piastre in the name of Vincenzo Allo,
send 4 hams and 15 pieces of bread. If you send us everything we are asking for everything will be well, otherwise we make
you cry. Send everything before noon if you want to be safe. After reading this note, you have to send us your friend D. Vincenzo
Allo. "The second note is addressed to archpriest Felice Innamorato of Roccamandolfi: "Dear archpriest D. Felice. Please send
º_me a little bit of money because I need it to support my group and to live in the country. We don't do this to make a profit
but only to live. Also send 250 ducati. Do not fail to do this, or your robe and your flesh as well as that of your brothers
and parents will burn. If you do not send me this little bit of money, when I come to Roccamandolfi, the first house to burn
will be yours. Total sum of money 250 ducati." Another item of interest that is reported by Nobili is that not having received
what he had asked for from the priest, he went to the priest's house with his group; here he saw a picture of St. Joseph hanging
on the wall which he mistook for Garibaldi, and he yelled, "I want to spit on this idiot of Garibaldi" but he withheld himself
from doing so once he realized his mistake.
The 18th of June, 1861 the judge of Cantalupo ordered the captain of the national police to go in the
outskirts of Grucella in order to surprise Cecchino and his group, but this came to nothing. The night of the 13th of August
a group of 150 brigands led by Cecchino entered Cantalupo and in the clash that followed lieutenant Mancini of the national
police was killed. Having started a fire all over the town, they sacked some houses with the help of some prisoners, who,
freed by the brigands, joined their group. The houses that were devastated, as we learn from Nobili, were the ones of Ferdinando
di Chiro, Costantino Cascella, the coffee shop of Francesco Petrecca, and the house of Vincenzo Mancini. During the sacking,
they knocked down all the royal coat of arms and the pictures of the king that they ran into yelling "Hurrah for Francesco
II." From Cantalupo the group moved on to Roccamandolfi where they killed D. Pasuqale and D. Gregorio Rizzo, Matteo and Benedetto
de Filippo, and Giovanni Rinaldo. On the 26th of August 1861, in the territory of S. Gregorio, Cecchino and Cimino, because
of a game of cards, had a fight. In the clash, Cimino was killed and Cecchino wounded his arm. Since he had to take care of
his wound, Cecchino had to hide in woods more secure and known, between Roccamandolfi and Castel Pretroso.
Following a tip-off, the national police of Roccamandolfi were able to capture the bandit, who was
shot on the 4th of September by a squadron commanded by lieutenant Pistia. With the disappearance of the two leaders, the
group did not disappear, but continued to batter the area with new leaders, who were no less terrible or dangerous than the
two mentioned above. The economic and social conditions began to improve only with emigration. The emigrated contadini only
thought of the land that land which they had dreamed of possessing in 1799 and in 1860, part of which they had been able to
take away from the bourgeoisie, who, because of emigration, had been deprived of enough help and found themselves in a precarious
situation. When the emigration ended because of fascism, the economic situation of Molise fell again.
Francesco Jovine says that the Molise has a "gray and rough land, wrinkly mountains skinned by the
landslides and crumbly rocks." An avaricious land that hardly ever gives back to the contadino the fruit for his hard work.
To this we must add the fact that our contadino has never received any kind of professional instruction on rotation of the
land or a guide to agricultural laws. Even the agricultural instruments have remained in the traditional forms: the cow or
the donkey pulling the plow, and in many cases the contadino hoes the virgin land with his bare hands. The fractionated property
has not allowed the contadino, nor was it convenient, to procure mechanical methods. Emigration is the natural outlet to a
condition of displeasure which they found themselves in. Emigration began in the Molise right after the unification of Italy.
IL Risveglio, (1899, II Year, No. 4), the newspaper edited in Agnone, denounces the regional situation. "While all the regions
of Italy, some more, some less, were making an effort to better agriculture and the various related industries, only the province
of Molise has never done anything: nothing, only indifference, indolence, failures, poverty, and the terrible exodus on the
other side of the ocean."
In May 1897 a group of emigrants from Molise had a leaflet printed entitled "To our exploiters (in
the Molise)." in which we can read: "Be warned that the working class is no longer drowsy with ignorance, but has awakened
to the life to its emancipation, it no longer hears, because it no longer fears, your threats and the resignation preached
by the clergy. You are big medieval beings, and you are now damaged goods, fading out as an historical principle. Emigration
made us desert our poor land, because you so grossly exploited us. The breath of progress has wakened our dark minds demolishing
our prejudices, our superstitions and the unreasonable beliefs of servant and master, exploited and exploiter. Aware that
we are part of society and of life, we have set our minds to demolish this human structure full of hypocrisy and malicious
allusions. This is our goal, and you can be sure that we will never give in when faced with your coalitions, because the working
class has the most powerful forces from the production to the perseverance of our goals." You can imagine what an impact this
writing had on all the Molise?
With the war, emigration stopped but began again in 1919 because of the crisis after the war. The real
exodus began in 1951 due to unemployment and to the scarce industrial and agricultural activities. Emigration is directed
not only to the North of Italy but to the other European countries, to the Americas, to Australia and other continents. Cantalupo
is one of many towns from which, every year, people leave. All we need to do is to look at the most recent censuses to see
the continuos exodus that takes place in Cantalupo. In the 1951 census there were 2,362 residents in Cantalupo. Ten years
later, in the 1961 census, a drastic drop in population is shown with a population of 1,533, a decrease of 807 inhabitants.
Such phenomenon continues, and in 1971 the population has declined to 1,053. Some return to the town to enjoy the fruits of
his hard labor and to enjoy a well deserved rest. Other emigrants do not forget their town. Each year, in fact, they send
money which enables the town to celebrate the patrons with feasts in a grandiose way. The person in contact with the town's
emigrants is reverend Giuseppe DiGregorio, head of the Cantalupo nel Sannio's parish.
AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE FIRST YEARS OF 1900
The work of preparing the ground for the sowing was done with steel plows pulled by animals, mules
in particular. The plows were of different weights depending on the type of work that needed to be done; they varied from
25 to 40 Kg. The sowing was done by the most capable contadini. The yields were divided in furrows. For the sowing, they used
wood plows that were lighter and more manageable. The lack of easy access streets, most of the roads were mule tracks, made
the sowing more difficult for both the transportation of the seeds and for the daily trips on the muddy roads, in which the
mules would sink up to their knees. For this reason, those who had someplace to stay in the countryside would remain there
for the duration of the work, so avoiding the trips back and forth. When the crop was ready, the harvesters would reap with
the scythe from dawn to dusk. During busy days such as these, the workers often did not have the possibility to get a drink
of water, because the wells, if there were any, did not always contain drinkable water and the supply of water that they have
would get warm under the sun's rays.
After the harvest, the sheaves were carried to a threshing floors where, with the trampling of mules,
horses, or donkeys, they were threshed, a very hard and tiring work. It was necessary to move and to turn the threshed harvest
four or five times, to winnow and separate the grain from the hay. The contadini did not have watches to regulate the time,
so they used different techniques to orient themselves: the shadow of the farmhouse, the shadow of persons, the shadow of
the raised finger on the palm of the hand, and the position of the sun. In an agricultural economy so backward, sheep breeding
had an important role: the local feasts and those of the surrounding towns enabled the sale of livestock. During the summer,
the animals were grazed during the night, at the light of the moon. Besides the flock of animals, which not everybody had,
we have to consider that almost every family had a pig, a few chickens, and a goat for their family needs. The vegetable garden
that many had behind the house provided the necessary vegetables and fruits, so that they were almost self-sufficient.
A TOURIST VIEW
The evolution of the phenomenon of tourism in Italy began around the first years of 1900. A gradual
expansion has taken place year after year. From 472,000 in 1900 we have reached 27 million in 1974. The reasons that explain
this continuous expansion are many. It is one of the biggest phenomenon's that interest Italy, with particular reference to
the Mezzogiorno (the South) which has been defined as "the great reserve of Italian tourism. "Particular attention must be
given to our region, because it finds itself in the right conditions to develop such phenomenon due to its climate and its
geographic position. Some areas of the region have had a good tourist development such as the coastal area and that of Mainarde.
We also have a virgin area, the massif of Matese, to which attention has been given only in the past few years. The hospitality
of the people of Molise is well known, especially in the mountain towns. This hospitality is spontaneous and conquers the
soul of the tourist.
They are morally sound people, proud of their traditions, respectful of others. Attractive for the
tourists are the archeological monuments, the objects produced by the artisans, the folklore celebrations, and the dishes
of the local cuisine. There is also the beauty of the countryside, the freshness of the air, and the therapeutical value of
the climate, the richness of uncontaminated water, the extensiveness of the forests, and the large green areas that cover
the territory. The Matese still preserves its original beauty of color and lines, and nature is almost intact, and inhabitedcenters
fit in the scenery without disturbing it. The hotel complex at Campitello Matese and the skiing equipment are the first realizations
that aim to create an incentive to utilize the entire territory of Matese. Mountain towns such as Cantalupo, Roccamandolfi,
Boiano, S. Paolo and others are interested in such development. They are already part of the "Tourist District" an organization
which has the goal of creating the substructures for a rapid growth of tourism in the area, taking advantage of the benefits
that the law provides for such districts. The vocation of the Matese region must be looked at under this light, and in a sense
it could constitute a precious resource and an end to the fatal phenomenon of emigration in our country.
THE CITY TODAY
Cantalupo is a pleasant city, geographically located at the foot of the Matese on a hill at the right
of the small river Rio, in the area where the Biferno river begins to stream. In the South, it is bordered by the Roccamandolfi
plain, by S. Massimo in the south-east, by Macchiagodena in the north, and by S. Maria del Molise in the north-west. The city
is situated at 587 meters above sea level. The landscape is varied and picturesque. Its air is healthy and its climate mild,
its nature serene and pleasant. It seems to be resting, wrapped in the large cloak of its mother: the Matese, and encircled
by a large number of scattered houses. These farms scattered in the Cantalupo plain give the landscape a characteristic aspect.
The hospitality of the people of Cantalupo is famous. During summer, many citizens of Cantalupo now residing elsewhere as
well as other tourists from other regions come to Cantalupo to spend their vacation. The Cantalupo plain extends for 1,551
hectares, part of which is cultivated and the rest is woodland. The woods are the decoration and the richness of the area
and are privately owned.
Cantalupo is an agricultural center of some importance. The main products are: wheat, corn, forage,
table grapes. Grazing of animals also takes place; in particular, that of cows and sheep. Industry is represented in the food
sector by the mills owned by Gentile Biagio, in the building sector by Iacobucci, and in the textile sector by the wool factory
owner, Mr. Orsatti. In 1920, near the railroad station an electric shop opened, consisting of a saw mill and a mill which
later could have produced electrical energy. This was the second shop in Cantalupo. Tuesday is market day. Fairs are held
twice a year: the fair of S. Gennaro for goods and livestock is held the 17, 18 and 19 of September; the fair of S. Andrea
is held the 27, 28, 29 and 30 of November, also for goods and livestock.
POPULATION FROM THE XVIII CENTURY TO DATE 1780
1,748 inhabitants 1795
3,338 1911 until World War II the population remains at a steady level after the war it begins to reduce
The city of Cantalupo can consider itself to have a fairly good center of schools. At the moment, there
are the following schools: Asilo Infantile Statale (nursery school), whose building belongs to the church; an elementary school,
and a secondary school (scuola media). The schools are located for the most part in new buildings which allows a constructive
school life. The city has a fairly good number of professionals.
Around the end of the year 1700, on the slopes of a mountain in the Cantalupo plain sprang a liquid
called "petronic oil" but the spring probably disappeared with the earthquake of July 26, 1805.
The old cemetery was located at the entranc e
DISTANCE IN KILOMETERS FROM MAJOR CENTERS
From Isernia to Cantalupo km. 18
From Campobasso km. 39
From Naples km. 182
From Rome km. 198
Since 1970 when Isernia became a province, Cantalupo is one of the 52 communes that are part of the
province of Isernia.
MAYORS - PODESTA - PREFECT COMMISSIONERS
De Gaglia, Zaccaria 1809
Petrecca, Ferdinando 1811
De Gaglia, Ascanio 1815-1816
Moauro, Raffaele 1817-1821
Del Re, Carmine 1827-1829
Moauro, Raffaele 1820-1832
Perrella, Libero 1833-1839
De Gaglia, Alessandro 1845-1846
Crivellone, Biagio 1846-1849
Moauro, Giacinto 1861-1862
Cascella, Constantino 1863-1866
De Maio, Gennaro 1867-1869
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1870-1872
Maio, Gennaro 1873-1874
Forchione, Vincenzo 1875
De Gaglia, Ascanio 1876-1885
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1886-1895
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1896
Forchione, Vincenzo 1897-1907
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1907-1909
Forchione, Gaetano 1910-1912
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1912-1914
Petrecca, Leopoldo 1914
Monaco, Cosmo 1914-1920
Di Re, Gaetano 1922
D'Agnillo, Francesco Antonio 1921-1922 Prefect Commissioner
Cosmo 1923 - 1926 Prefect Commissioner
Barbato, Antionio 1925-1931 Podesta
1931 1931 Prefect Commissioner
Carile, Raffaello 1939-1940 Podesta
Ruggiero, Vittorio, 1941Prefect Commissioner
Cornacchione, Alfredo 1941-1943
Bocchetti, Giovanni 1944-1946 Mayor
De Maio, Alfredo 1944-1945
Barbato, Michele 1946-1956
Barbato, Antonio 1956-1957
Cardono, Michele 1957-1964
De Lazzaro, Mario 1964-present
From an ecclesiastical point of view, Cantalupo has always been part of the diocese of Boiano, and
each year the parish of Cantalupo contributed food or money to the bishop of Boiano.
In 1929, the year in which bishop Alberto Romita transferred the bishop's seat to Campobasso, the diocese
was named Boiano-Campobasso and the parish of Cantalupo, even though the commune in 1970 became part of the province of Isernia,
remained under the jursidicition of the bishop of Campobasso.
There is only one parish S. Salvatore, who is the commune's patron saint, whose feast is on the 6th
Church of San Salvatore. It was built in 1700. It is located in the center of town, in the ancient
section, and is easily reached by taking the Michele Pietravalle road.
Its interior is 31 meters long with three isles, 18 meters wide and 20 meters high, with wood sculptures
It has been restored various times during the centuries. The last restoration was done in 1970 with
money collected by the citizens on the initiative of D.Giuseppe Di Gregorio, the only priest in Cantalupo.
In 1976 the wood putti were stolen.
Church of the Addolorata. It is a small church, built in relatively recent years, with no particular
During the fascist era it was taken over by the fascist. After the war, it resumed its normal function.
Church of The Carmine. It is located in the Taverna area. It was recently built. Religious services
are held only on holidays for the convenience of the inhabitants of the Taverna area.
S. Antonio Abbey. The church was located in the territory of Carinci, near the Bottone stream. The
church was to be run by priests belonging to a certain religious order.
This is reported by Perrella: "In 1523, the bishop of Boiano, Francitto Orsini, had an inventory taken
of the belongings of the ancient S. Antonio Abbey." The church was destroyed.
S. Andrea Abbey. Very old church located in the Cantalupo plain which was donated to the monastery
of Montecassino by a Leone, priest of Boiano. The church no longer exists.
The Priests: Libetti, Pietro 1705-1730
Tesauro, Agustion 1730-1732
Martelli, Carlo 1733-?
Ruberto, Filippo 1810-182
Durate, Giovenale di Cameli 1812-1818
Ruberto, Filippo 1818-1819
Gaglia, Cesare 1819-1821
Petrecca, Gennaro 1821-1836
Perrella, Tito 1836-1889
Monaco, Gennaro 1889-1891
Marsilio, Francisco 1904-1905
Gatta, Antonio 1905-1934
De Falco, Nicola 1934-1938
di Boiano 1938-1939
Camino, Luigi 1939-1945
Notte, Raffaele 1945-1946
Di Gregorio, Gisseppe 1946-at least 1980
STATISTICAL DATA CONCERNING THE YEARS 1961-1970
The Cantalupo plain in the years 1961-1970 was distributed as follows: In 1961 there were 256 farms
privately owned and run. In 1970 they were reduced to 178. The area used for cultivation was 1,195 hectares in 1961 and in
1970 it had been reduced to 1,069 hectares. In 1961 there were only 2 farms with salaried employees and in 1970 these became
11. Average size of farms, 1961 23 hectares and in 1970 90 hectares.
There were 13 other types of businesses in 1960, covering ar area of 45 hectares, in 1970 there were
As can be seen the number of businesses in this ten year period declined by 82, the cultivated land
decreased from 1264 hectares to 1159. The population also declinded dramatically from 1553 persons in 1961 to 1053 in 1970.
EPIDEMICS - FAMINE - EARTHQUAKES
Between 1525 and 1530, the plague took many victims. In 1656 a larger plague took more lives in the
towns of Molise.
There werealso terrible famines: very grave was the one in 1764; Carpinone which had 1000 inhabitants,
only in the month of May 1764, had 146 deaths; and Cantalupo had to open a new cemetery to accommodate all the dead.
There were also many earthquakes, which reduced the population and destroyed homes and churches:
In 853, the earthquake destroyed the entire territory (F. Ughelli); other earthquakes in the area 1117,
1125, 1131, 1273, 1279, 1300, 1349, 1456, 1561,1627, 1629, 1638, 1640, 1688, 1703, 1704, 1706, 1799.
A major earthquake, called the earthquake of Sant' Anna, occurred on July 26,1805, the epicenter was
at Frosolone. 181 persons died in Cantalupo.
Earthquakes continued in 1837, 1841, 1856, 1886, 1913, 1914 and 1932.
CULTURAL AND CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS
City Information Center. Assists the poor and the unemployed town people.
Cultural and recreational club: Place where young people spend their free time, conversing about social
and cultural problems.
Pro-local. Association promoting various initiatives of recreational, cultural and tourist character.
Pharmacy. Of Dott. Onorato
Trattoria. Of Mr. Del Riccio
MONUMENTS AND PALACES
Monuments to Soldiers. It is located in Piazza Alfonso Perrella. It was inaugurated in 1967, constructed
by the initiative of ex-soldiers and sponsored by the city administration. It is dedicated to the memory of Cantalupo's citizens
who died during the two World Wars: 1915-1918 and 1940-1945. ( An Antonio Crivellone is listed on the monument).
The Petrecca Palace constructed also in the XVIII century. Inside are residuals of antique ceramics
and the private family chapel.
The Morra Palace built by the Morra family towards the end of 1700. One of the Morras was named Duke
of Cantalupo because he married a Di Gennaro, the last of the Di Gennaro family of Cantalupo.
OFFICES - ASSOCIATIONS
City Police, Chief of Police
Internal Revenue Service
Welfare Office for farmers
Welfare Office for craftsmen
Another characteristic aspect of the Molisana life is the folklore. The variety and abundance of folkloristic
traditions of the Molise is due to the flux of immigration to the region during the centuries, of people rich of folklore,
like the Yugoslavians, the Moslems, and the Bizantini.
The spirit of conversation of past generations allows us not only to reconstruct but also to live the
customs and the traditions of the Molise people who have preceded us.
In the folklore lives the culture, the history and the past of the Molise people.
The picturesque customs of the Molisani constitute an important ethnic element. The customs, like the
traditions, with the passage of time also have undergone some changes; the essential elements vary from town to town, from
area to area; each of the 136 communes that make up our region has certain characteristics.
"In all of the Boiano area, (the people dress with wool clothes made with their own hands, and under
their clothes they wear a shirt made out of rough hemp; they use the same clothes for winter and summer." (Casimiro Spina
The older people still have clothes like the ) ones described above. Social position permits to have
more clothes. The most beautiful costume, the one richly embroidered, is worn on holidays. The most beautiful costume is well
taken care of because it is going to be worn when dieting and will be worn in the tomb. Gold, pins, and necklaces complete
the adornment of the costume.
Another part of folklore is represented by songs and dances.
In general, they are love songs, very melodious, sung all together during the wheat reaping and the
olive picking. The elders still remember the themes of the areas. These songs are destined to disappear because very seldom
do we have them in written form.
The most common dances are the polka and the tarantella. These are danced accompanied by an harmonica
or an accordion. The most opportune time for dancing is during mardis gras.
Among the oldest traditions we must remember the Procession of the Dead Christ. It takes place on Good
Friday and all the people of Cantalupo participate.
Feast of del Rosario and S. Michele, celebrated on the Tuesday
after the first Sunday of June;
Feast of S. Anna, the 25,26,27th of July;
Feast of the Carmine, August 30th;
Feast of the Addolorata, 29th of September.
These feasts are celebrated with great solemnity, especially the Feast of S. Anna, thanks to the money
sent by the emigrants living abroad.
THE FEAST OF S. ANNA
The feast of S. Anna is the feast most longed for by the residents of the central part of town, by
the contadini of the plain, and by those of the nearby towns. Already a few days before the feast the piazzas are occupied
by the merchants, who come from far, as each one of them wants to be in the central spot in order to make more sales. During
the feast days there is an unusual movement in the town, new faces, children screaming, crowded streets. It is the joy of
the feast that takes over everybody.
In the afternoon, from the main church, begins the procession that spreads in all the streets of the
town followed by many people who are there to express their devotion to the Saint.
In the evening, there are some concerts, with some orchestras with famous singers, and the fireworks
that end each feast day
Masciotta, G: Il Molise, Arti grafiche E. Di Mauro, Cava dei Tirrent, 1952
Ciarlanti, G: Memorie
storiche del Sannio, Is., Cavallo, 1564
Leone, M: Chronica Mon. Casinensis, Cassino
Gams, P: Series Espiscoporum E.
Catholicae, Ratisbona, 1873
Ughelli, F: Italia Sacra
Capocelatro, F: Diario cont. la storia delle cose avvenute nel
Reame di Napoli negli anni 1647-50, Nobile, NA 1853
Perralla, A: L'Anno 1799 nella prov. C.basso, Tip V. Maione, CE 1900
C: Agnone dalle origini ai nostri giorni, T. Lampo, CB, 1965
Zarrilli, G: Il Molise dal 1860 al 1900, Ed. Casa Mol. libro,
Zarrilli, G: Dagli albori del Risorgimento all'unita d'Italia, idem
Capuana, L: La Sicilia e il brigantaggio, Stab.
Tip. It., Roma 1892
Nobile, P. I Briganti, Almanacco d. Molise, Ed. Nocera, 1970
Jovine, F: Saggi e studi sul Brigantaggio
Jovine, F: Viaggio nel Molise, Ed. Einaudi, MI, 1968
Tirabasso, A: Dizionario Biografico d. Molise,
Tip. Ls Squilla del Molise, Orantino, 1932
Sella, P: Le decime dei secoli XIII-XIV Aprutium-Molisium, Biblioteca Ap. Vaticana,
Citta del Vaticano, 1926
Molise Economico, Anno III, num. 4, luglio-agosto 1976
Serie Almanacco del Molise, passim,
Ed. Nocera, CB.
Arduino, A: Il Molise dall'unita d'Italia all Repubblica Tip. Minichetti-Guglielmi, Isernia 1975
The End of this brief history of Cantalupo.
Some interesting facts:
Cantalopes. It has been documented that melon seeds were brought back from Persia by the Roman
Legions. They grew well in a small village south of Rome called Cantalupo.
Liquor. Cantalupo produces a liquor called "AMARO - Cantalupo," which features the head of the
singing wolf and has a picture of the War Memorial on the label. It is very strong.
Il Crivellone. In Milan, Italy on the west side of town, near the Fiera Campionaria, there is
a square named "Piazzale Crivellone." The square was named after a very famous painter named "Il Crivellone" who lived from
1672 to 1730. Some of his painting hang in the Sforza Castle, the home of the Duke of Milan when it was a city-state. Il Crivellone's
real name was Angelo Maria Crivelli. I suspect that he was a large man, either in stature or reputation and thus "Big Crivelli
- Il Crivellone."
Recommended reading. Gay Talese wrote an excellent book - "Unto The Sons" - which chronicles
the lives of a family from Italy (south of Cantalupo) and their immigration to the United States. This book will give one
a feeling of what life was like and what our forefathers experienced both in America and Italy in the early 1900s.
Return to The Crivellones