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TITLE PAGE - THE HISTORY OF THE CRIVELLI
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UBERTO CRIVELLI - POPE URBAN III - OF THE CRIVELLI
VALENTINA DORIA - HISTORY OF THE PRESIDENTS OF UNITED STATES
CARLO CRIVELLI - LEONARDO DA VINCI
HOW MONA LISA IS A CRIVELLI
VINCENT CRIVELLI
CARLO (CHARLIE) CRIVELLI
MIGUEL DE CERVANTES
JOSEPH & ESTELLA CRIVELLI CERVANTES
VIRGINIA CERVANTES
JOSEPH CERVANTES, JR.
RICHARD CERVANTES
ARCH MACDONALD
DOUGAL & DIANE CERVANTES MACDONALD
CAROLINE - JOURNAL 2008
CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL
CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA
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CASE: WHO IS SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
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CASE: THE DIVINE RIGHT TO RULE
CASE: NIN-ME-SARA: Lady of countless cosmic powers
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CASE: LADY OF SHALOTT OF CAMELOT
CASE: THE COUNTERFACTUAL BARBELO 2003
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THE DIVINE MOTHER
THE MISSION OF THE NEW EVE
THE ROSE OF THE WORLD
CASE: LADY ELECT CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
CASE: GRIM RIPPER - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA - JOHN F. KENNEDY, JR.
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CASE: SUPEREME COURT OF THE PARANORMAL - VALENTINA DORIA III - HER HONOR THE OMEGA
CASE: BAT - KOL KENNEDY
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CLAIM OF SPIRITUAL WAR FARE - SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY & ETHAN HANKS
CASE: MICHAEL BERGIN - FIRST ASCENDED MASTER
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TITLE PAGE - LIST OF PERSONS WHO HAVE CLAIMED SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - QUEEN OF THE UNIVERSE
KNIGHTED - KIRK MCLEOD
KNIGHTED - MICHAEL MORAN
TITLE PAGE - PARANORMAL ABILITIES IN THE CRIVELLI FAMILY
TITLE PAGE - 2 - WITNESSED AND PROOF OF FAMILY PARANORMAL ABILITIES
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TAYLOR PARANORMAL ABITIES
AVA PARNORMAL ABILITIES
CAROLINE PARANORMAL ABILITIES
ETHEN'S PARANORMAL ABILITIES
MICHAEL PARANORMAL ABILITIES
JOHAN PARANORMAL ABILITIES
CLAYTON PARNORMAL ABILITES
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THE DIVINE RIGHT TO RULE
SUPEREME COURT OF THE PARANORMAL - VALENTINA DORIA III - HER HONOR THE OMEGA
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JUDGEMENT DAY - MINUTES OF MAR 4, 2004
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MINUTES - $20,000.00 A MONTH DEBT VS $1.00 OR PAY PAY PAY
CASE: WESLY SNIPES TAX FRAUD
MINUTES - JUDGEMENT DAY - THE REMOVAL FROM THE TREE OF LIFE - LIST
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CASES BEING HEARD AND JUDGED
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CASE: $20,000.00 A MONTH VS. $1.00 OR PAY PAY PAY
TRAILER PAGE - EVIDENCE IN THE RICHARD ALLEN CERVANTES CASE
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CASE: PROLIFERATION OF MICHAEL RAYMOND MORAN
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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

POPE URBAN III

HISTORY OF THE GOTHS
 
HISTORY OF THE VISGOTHS
 
CRIVELLUCCI COUNSEL
HISTORY OF THE LOMARDS
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA - LOMBARDY
CRIVELLUCCI

Bibliography

The earliest historian of Lombardy is PAULUS WARNEFRID (730-797), known as Paulus Diaconus, a Benedictine of Monte Cassino, and chancellor of King Desiderius. His Historia. Langobardorum is an important authority for the traditions, customs, and political history of his people to the end of the eighth century (P.L., XCV; Mon. Ger. Hist.: Script. Rer. Langob., Berlin, 1878). See also TROYA, Codex diplom. Longobard. (Naples, 1852), and besides the histories of LEO, HARTMANN, CANT٬ SCHMIDT, and others, the valuable work of. HODGKIN, Italy and her Invaders, V-VI (London, 1895); POUPARDIN, Hist. des principautés lombardes de l'italie mérid. (Paris, 1907); IDEM, Instit. polit. Et adm. des princip. lombardes (Paris, 1907). For the relations of the Roman Church with the Lombards see Liber Pontificalis, ed. DUCHESNE (Paris, 1885), passim, and DUCHESNE, Les év�d'Italie et l'invasion lombarde in Mélanges d'archéol. et d'hist., XXIII, XXIV (Paris, 1903); also CRIVELLUCCI, Le chiese cattoliche ed i Lombardi ariani in Studi Storici, IV (6), XIII. On the Lombard communes see DANTIER in Revue Europ�ne, 1859, III-IV, and WILLIAMS, The Communes of Lombardy, VI to X century, in Johns Hopkins, Univ. Hist. Studies (Baltimore, 1891). The medieval chroniclers of Lombardy are to he found in MURATORI, Script. rer. Ital. (1725), 28 vols., folio, passim; see also the Mon. Germ. Hist., the Hist. Patria Monumenta, and the Archivo Storico Lombardo-Veneto (Milan, 1874, sqq.). For Lombard art see MALVEZZI, Le glorie dell'arte Lombarda (Milan, 1892), 590-1850, also the histories of ecclesiastical art by KRAUS, KUHN, and others. On the medieval financial operations of the Lombards see PITOU, Les Lombards en France et ࠐaris (1892), and all economical histories of the Middle Ages, e.g., CUNNINGHAM, Western Civilization.

BELOW IS THE LINK TO VIEW THE REST OF THIS DOCUMENT

 

SYP

 

POPE URBAN III

HISTORY OF THE CRIVELLI

 

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

H I S T O R Y

O F

C A N T A L U P O nel Sannio

I T A L Y

All Crivellones are from this village.

A view of the village of Cantalupo from the base of Mount Monta.
The church's tower is clearly visable
.

Every Crivellone despite what they believe can trace their roots to the small mountain village of Cantalupo (Singing Wolf) in the province of Molise. Molise is located northeast of Naples, Italy. The village sits at the base of Mount Monta in the heart of the mountain range that runs down the middle of Italy. The largest towns on most maps are Isernia, about 18 kilometers north and Campobasso, 39 kilometers south.

View with snow-capped mountains in June
taken from the main road, about l km from the village.

I have a database of over 1,000 Crivellones (including descendants and spouses and Barbieris - gradmother and mother's side). My data base includes everyone with the name Crivellone that I have found (so far), from around the world (including descendants and spouses). At the present time I have seven separate families of Crivellones. By far the largest group is the one that I am a member of that starts with a gentleman called Agnello - 863. The numbers following names are those assigned by my computer program.

I am anxious to continue to learn about the members of our family and tie the separate families together. I have made great progress bringing all the names I have down to seven families. However I have a feeling that one day I (or some other Crivellone) may tie all the Crivellones to one or two Crivellones. It is documented that a Aniello Crivellone lived in this village in 1510 - he may be the start of us all. After reading the very brief history of Cantalupo below, visit the Crivellone Home Page

One problem in doing research is that the municpal records in most of Italy stated in 1809, three years after the feuds ended. The church records of course go back over 400 years. Unfortunately in 1805 a very severe earthquake destroyed all the church records in Cantalupo.

For the record, and to avoid confusion, there are ten Cantalupo villages in Italy. One Cantalupo is located just outside of Milan and they have a web page - Cantalupo - Milan area. I have developed a pen pal relationship with the webmaster of the page. "Our" Cantalupo added the term "nel Sannio" on November 20, 1862.

Visit The Bertone Family with an excellent detailed history of Molise and villages very close to Cantalupo.



Cantalupo is located in the province of Molise.
.

Cantalupo - Maps - Visiting this site will give one the overall view of a large portion of Italy and another map the details of the location of Cantalupo.


Cantalupo - "The Singing Wolf"
The Stemma (viillage coat of arms)



A History of Cantalupo nel Sannio


Two university students - Ferdinando Salvatore and Giuseppe Fratangelo - wrote (in Italian) a thesis on Cantalupo. It was published by Tip. L'Economica - Campobosso - Tel. 60262

The purpose of this book is to supply a panoramic view, within our limits, of a Molise town, which has gone through a dramatic reality throughout centuries in which emigration has reached incredible peaks.

This is certainly not an isolated case confirmed only to our Molise, and it is for this reason that in our research we could find more complex situations which are not known in the Molise history.

It is also far away the pretex to have exhausted our research. We wanted to create an incentive for the lovers of our Molise to further pursue the richness and natural history of our land. Our region has good prospectives for tourism, and the awareness of all the Molise history could further assist to the development of this industry.

We have tried to report the facts we felt important without expecting to find all the answers and give all the logical ties among facts.

It is part of history to fulfill with fantasy what we have not been able to find in our stories.

We hope that the work will be appreciated by our reader friends.

HISTORIC POINTS ON CANTAUPO

The Name. As of this date historians have not been able to give an exact explanation of the name Cantalupo. The most credible version is the one that derives from "Can," word used in the primative language, now totally gone, which meant "water way" - not too far from Cantalupo, in fact, there is a river call Rio River.

This hypothesis is supported by a similar interpretation give to various towns in Puglia; Canne; Candela; Canosa, and other towns in Sicily, a word probably derived from the Arabic language that meant "spring water."

It is the only town in Molise that has this name. In Italy there are: Cantalupo in Sabina (Perugia), Cantalupo Ligure (Alessandria) and Cantalupo (Torino). (Don Crivellone - in fact there are ten Cantalupos in Italy) On November 20, 1862 to the name Cantalupo was added "Nel Sannio" and approved by the city, became effective on February 4, 1864.

THE ORIGINS OF CANTALUPO

The birth of Cantalupo is as dark as the night. It has been impossible to establish with certainly the date. It probably goes back to the Lombards' domination. The area belongs to the Isernia Shire, on of the 34 shires when the Ducat of Benevento was divided in 571.

In the 10th century, a citizen of Cantalupo by the name of Berardo Conte of Isernia, gave as a gift to his son Radoisio the cities of Agnone, Cantalupo and Caccavone. The gift certificate is reported by Ughelli in his book Italia Scara.

Cantalupo, as other towns of Molise, could be considered as a fortress where the feudal nobels took refuge when in danger, and it also constitued a great revenue.

A definite existence of Cantalupo is reported in a document dated 1015, where it is said that Leone, priest of Boiano, donated to the Montecassino monastery the St. Andrea church, located in Cantalupo.

Based on this information, it could be confirmed that the date reported by Masciotta of 1011 is not correct. Ciarlanti, from whom, with probability, Misciotta obtained the information, was makin reference to the year when Atenolfo, son of Pandolfo, prince of Benevento, becam Abate.

In the "Cassinese Reprot" of Leone Marsicano, besides the year 1015 it is also mentioned the date of April 18th. The gift, in fact, was givenby priest Leone and not by Bishop Leone. From the Bonifacio Garus listing, no bishop was elected during the period 501 to 1061.

In the same "Cassinese Report" it is mentioned of a priest Leone who, together with other priests, donated the churches of San Salvatore and San Cristoforo di Castel Petroso.

CANTALUPO FROM THE NORMANS TO THE END OF FEUDS

In the middle of the XI century with the occupation by the Normans of Sicily and Naples, Cantalupo became part of Molise.

In the "Catalogo Borrelliamo" is reported that half of the city of Cantalupo belonged to Guglielmo da Pesclo (now Pesche). The other half was of Raone di Cantalupo who lived until 1188. The Cantalupo family was probably a ramification derived from the Borrello count of Agnone and named after the city of Cantalupo.

The family Cantalupo is mentioned by Capocelatro in the Angioina period, and present at the Naples parliament was a Ruggero Cantalupo.

During the Norman domination, emperor Arrigo VI (1194-97) assigned parts of Cantalupo's territory to the brothers Rinaldo and Fortebraccio Acquaviva.

During the reign of Carlo of Angio', the Acquavivas were deprived of their share of the feud in their possession which was distributed among other families such as the D'Annas, the Capuanos, the Santangelos, the Primeranos, and the Sanfromondos. The Cantalupo family during this period still had part of the feud.

As you can see, Cantalupo has always been a feud divided among various households, and this makes it difficult to establish the exact reconstruction of the genealogy of the owners of this feud.

What we can reconstruct is that Guido Primerano in 1303 sold his share to Francesco Acquaviva and that the Sanfromodos and Giacomomo, kept their share until 1465, and that Filippo Santangelo sold his share to Matteo Capuana.

During the reign of Carlo II of Angio' (1285-1309), Gentile and Ottone of Letto and Fulcro Roccafoglia were the owners of the feud.

We know that a share of the feud was later owned, at least from 1330 to 1381, by Gualtiero of S. Agapito and by his son Nicola. These new families probably substituted, except for the Sanfromondos, the previous families.

We have reason to believe that the Sanfromondos were able to unify the feud since we know that Niccolo, Antonello and Jacopo Sanfromondo were deprived of the feud by Ferrrante.

We reject the hypothesis that the Capuanos were the ones to unify the feud as Masciotta stipulated. In fact, it seems that the successor of the Sanfromondos was Berardo Gaspare of Aquino, marquis of Pescara, who stayed in Cantalupo until 1486.

In 1486, Francesco of Bastariis, a Pisan patrician, bought the feud. After his death in 1522 his son Giuseppe took over.

In 1536, Dianora Sperandeo was the owner of Cantalupo, who in the same year sold the feud to Pirro Antonio of Costanzo. The latter took in Angelo of Costanzo, a relative, poet and historian, who had been exiled from Naples by the Viceroy of Toledo.

When Pirro Antonio of Costanzo died, his wife Eleonora of Corrado asked the court permission to sell the feud, and having obtained the permission, Cantalupo was put up for auction and was bought by Luigi of the Marra.

The next year, Luigi of the Marra sold Cantalupo to Emilio Sanchez, whose family had come to Molise from Spain at the time of the viceroy.

In 1574, Luigi Sanchez, son of Emilio, sold Cantalupo to Maria Carafa who in turn sold it in 1577 to Scipione of Costanzo.

In 1605 Cantalupo was put up for sale by the creditors of the house of Costanzo and was bought by Francesco of Pisa. He kept it until 1618. At this time it was bought by Stefano Cattaneo.

Around 1627, Eugenio Cattaneo sold Cantalupo to Andrea of Gennaro for the sum of 18,000 ducati.

The Gennaros attained in 1632 the ducal title and remained in the feud of Cantalupo until the end of Feudalism.

We note here the names of the owners in the Gennaro family that we know of:

Andrea of Gennaro, alive in 1648, died in Spain before 1656. In his diary is mentioned Antonia of Gennaro, duchess of Cantalupo, may be his wife.

Andrea junior, alive in 1753.

Antonio, Andrea's heir, born in Naples 9-27-1717, son of Andrea and Marianna Brancaccio of the Ruffano dukes. He died the 21st of January 1791 in the palace of his ancestors in Margellina.

The last duke of Cantalupo was Domenico, son of Antonio, economy scholar, who was condemned for his free ideas and sentenced by the Giunto di Stato on 3-28-1800 to two years imprisonment in a castle, to be spent in exile.

TheGennaro family vanished with two brothers who died bachelors and with a sister who inherited the title and who married one of the Morras.

FEUDAL LIFE

The majority of the cities in Molise were born with the rise of feudalism in Italy.

Their position and their lay out are the proof.

In order to have access to the inhabited area, it was necessary, in those time, to cross the doors that led to that area.

The layout of the old Cantalupo lets us assume that such doors existed which, thoughout the centuries, have disappeared. Even now we can ascertain the presence of an encircling wall and of towers no longer standing.

The castle, from which the lord dominated, represented the center of social and economical life of the city.

The function of the feudal lord, at first, was a positive one, because it assured the defense of the cities, and it made up for the lack of power. Subsequently, however, it became an action of oppression which in time increased.

The local feudal lords were joined by foreign lords, who used their noble titles to economically exploit the feud, while they maintained their residence somewhere else. It's easy then to suppose that in the Molise, due to the modest residences, lived castaldi or administrators. This was verified from the times of the Angioini, who assigned the feuds to their followers when they occupied the South.

Such phenomenon in the South continued for many centuries.

In the XVI and XVII centuries, the oppression on the part of the barons forced the peasants to sustain rigorous impositions without enjoying in return the lands that they worked, without considering the presence of the clergy.

At the beginning of 1700, in the Kingdom of Naples, of 2265 communes, only 59 where under the jurisdiction of the king, the others depended on the power of the Barons.

In 1700, Molise was also damaged by the trade policies of Carlo III, as Naples and other cities began to get grain from other areas.

With the destruction of feudalism, in the time of Giuseppe Bonaparte, the social and economical conditions, instead of improving, rapidly became worse. In fact, with the redistributing of the state's properties, those who gained were not the peasants but the land owners.

Not ever after 1860, with the unification of the Molise region to the United Kingdom, have the conditions of the peasants bettered. The phenomenon of brigandage and of emigration are consequences of such hardship.

QUARRELS BETWEEN CANTALUPO AND S. MASSIMO IN 1500

The quarrels between the two cities that we are about to describe have to be placed in the time when the war between the Spanish and French over the ruling of the peninsula had already been going on for twenty years, and when the in he South, upset over the descent of Carlo VIII from the throne, a central government did not exist, and justice and law were in the hands of the Barons.

Today, what we are about to present to the young might seem ridiculous, but the older people will certainly remember having heard from their parents, that fierce quarrels and fights happened even in recent time like the ones we are going to deal with, sometimes just for the smallest piece of land.

The scarcity of woodland and pastureland often induced the cities that lacked these lands to turn to cities whose geographic position allowed a better economy. When this would happen, ferocious quarrels would result, quarrels for survival.

We need to keep in mind that these people lived on very little and could not afford the luxury to make even the minimal concession. In an economic situation where everything is concentrated in the hands of a few, it becomes difficult even to find a little bit of wood to warm up with, and it is necessary to take it away from those who have it.

With this brief introduction, the events that follow could assume a particular meaning and take us back to the social-economical context of the era.

The disagreement between Cantalupo and S. Massimo in 1525 has for its subject the geographic position of the two cities and the different economy of the two cities that forces the Cantalupesi to take advantage of what the territory of S. Massimo has to offer.

In fact, while S. Massimo has a woodland system with the district of S.Camillo, Selva Grande, Selva of the Castelluccia, Selva of the Faggi and the pastureland on Monta mountain, Cantalupo did not have any of these gifts of nature.

The clash happened in 1525. The news and the documents can be found in a passage of the Carano (Almanacco del Molise 1976).

Here are the facts: Sebastiano Mastrocola, the watchman of don Camillo Gaetani, baron of S. Massimo, finds Francesco and Tommaso Marella and Agostino di Suolo of Cantalupo picking up wood among the oak trees on Monta mountain, and gets beat up by them while defending the woods of his master.

This is not the end of it, as various formal protests are sent to the baron of Cantalupo, Don Giulio of Bastariis.

Gaetani, meanwhile, strengthens his property with armed men to discourage the Cantalupesi from coming on his lands.

The conflict, however, is in the air, and the occasion presents itself when the baron of Cantalupo requests recognition of his city's boundary with a plan made in his favor.

The baron of S. Massimo rejects the plan, followed by an exchange of insults and threats, to which the facts follow:

The clash occurs near " Cese Maretella."

The Cantalupese are lead by Federico of Bastariis and by the squadron leaders don ANIELLO CRIVELLONE and don Marco of Gaglia, while those of S. Massimo are lead by don Camillo Gaetani and by squadron leader Giovanbattista Selvaggi.

The Cantalupese at first fall into a trap but then are able to somehow defend themselves and get a grip on the situation, but at the end they commit a grave error which is to follow the enemy into the woods, and not being familiar with the surroundings, are defeated.

Here is the documentation: "In the year 1525, a dispute started between the two castles for the boundaries of the territories, which caused great hostility and up‚_roar among the citizens of said castles; they fought, and in the fight participated don Camillo Gaetano of S. Massimo and Giulio di Bastariis of Cantalupo.

The citizens of S. Massimo were stronger and many from Cantalupo were injured including Federico of Bastariis, son of the baron, who died from his injuries. And because God, maker of peace, inspired them to calm down and unite, they held meetings in S. Massimo where Cantlupo was represented by don Giulio of Bastariis and where they tried to establish some ground rules for the boundaries. "

Here are some of the clauses of the agreement: "Any animal found on the mountains of Camillo Gaetani will have to pay a penalty; the one with a bell will have to pay 15 carlini, and the one without the bell, 5 carlini." Evidently, the animal with a bell has to pay 10 carlini more for the noise it makes.

The peace will not last, because necessity does not pay attention to treaties, and the quarrels will end only when in 1600 Andrea of Gennaro purchases the feud of Cantalupo from Cattaneo and unites the two cities establishing a peace that will last until 1806, the date when feudalism ends.

In conclusion it is not difficult to deduce from what we have presented that these conflicts were due to the poverty in Molise which would then force people to fight for scarce resources. The search for lands rich of woodland meant to be able to have wood and to graze the animals. From this stems the necessity to go out of the boundaries such as the attempt of the baron of Cantalupo against the baron of S. Massimo which had the sad ending of shed blood that we have seen.

LIFE IN THE 1500s

In the 1500s there are smaller feudal families. Many families, by way of purchase, insert themselves in the feud, so changing the aspect of the feud to one of investment and source of income.

So, the conditions of life in the 1500s notably worsened. As Lalli states, "the landowner administers justice, he can hold citizens in the dungeons of his castle as he wishes, he can impose taxes of any kind, he can ask for free labor from anyone, he can order the people to use his mill and his oven.

To the abuses of the landowners we can add more from those in charge of collecting taxes or from those who hold other offices, because the office positions are sold, and those who take over try to regain what they have paid so as to advance themselves economically."

In fact, in some documents found by Carano, we can read, "The citizens of said land (Cameli) could build an oven on their lands and vineyards, and they could use it, but only to make dried pears and dried fruit and nothing else... He who tried to bake bread or to lend the oven to someone else to make dried pears or dried fruit free of charge was fined 20 carlini." Later on, though, with the establishment of the communes, which do not force the landowners to respect the laws, the citizens take it into their hands to establish a rapport with the landowners. The are primarily concerned with protecting their lands and their animals; the reasons for these requests are to defend themselves from usurpation of the state's lands on the part of landowners.

This is the first step on the part of the middle class (la borghesia) to the assault, which will come later, on the state's lands. But the requests go beyond these; they ask for limitations on free work, and they ask not to be forced to use the mill and the oven of the baron.

Let's look at some of the concessions that the baron has to make. Carano says: "The territory called Lo Monte Propre Castrum, property of the commune of Castelpizzuto, will be sold or rented as property of the commune, and the commune can dispose of it as it wishes.... without any contradictions from the landlords. "

The Renaissance is also felt in the Molise. Many castles are transformed and bettered, and private residences assume different structures.

Something was slowly changing even in the Molise.

CANTALUPO DURING THE FRENCH RULE

When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy with his troops, a sudden spirit of liberty spread throughout our towns. General Championnet, on the 22nd of January 1799, occupied Naples and declared it a republic. The Bourbon Court fled to Palermo. Many Molisani, believing in the promises of the French, joined them to fight against the Bourbons. But very soon they found themselves betrayed and disillusioned. Perrella comments: "The pains suffered this year because of the French have been incredible. The sackings, the extortion's during the anarchy reached the limit." Each town was forced to contribute money and provide supplies to maintain the French troops. The 18th of January, the mayor of Cantlupo, Don Domenico Martellie, returning from Isernia, where he had gone to pay taxes to commissioner Vischi for the French, was killed by the French because he had beaten up a French soldier who had insulted him.

The 14th of May, Andrea Monaco President, municipal officer of Cantalupo, had to pay 90 ducats, 10 bushels of hay, 5 hams, 40 chickens, 200 eggs, 4 wethers, 30 rolls of lard, for a value of 7555 ducati, to the passing French troops. But the Republic did not have a long life. In May alarming news came out of Naples. It was said that the French would soon leave. Nicola Neri, General Commissioner of the Department left for the capital and returned a few days later to confirm the news. He said that the majority of the troops stationed in Naples had left, and those in Benevento had done the same, and that Cardinal Ruffo was advancing towards the capital with his troops. A few days later, DeCesare, the cardinal's lieutenant occupied Campobasso. During the stay of the royal troops in the province, many communes, besides Campobasso, had to contribute to maintain the troops. Cantalupo was also forced to give its share: "20 ducati for the passage of the royal troops through Isernia; 350 ducati to three officials of the troops; 16 ducati to the lieutenant; to the 100 riflemen, 1350 ducati." From stories of Cantalupo. In September of 1799 King Ferdinand returned to Naples. Many republicans were exiled, other were killed, and, among them, many from the province of Molise.

CANTALUPO DURING THE XIX CENTURY

During the time of the republic, the ex kingdom was divided into departments and cantons. With the law of the 9th of February 1799, the continental territory was divided in 11 departments. Each department was divided in many cantons and each canton included various communes. Most of our province, under this law, was part of the 5th department, which was called Sangro. This department was made up of 16 cantons: Lanciano, Ortona, Palena, Atessa, Peconcostanzo, Castel di Sangro, Agnone, Baranello, Campobasso, La Riccia, Trivento, Larino, Termoli, Serra Capriola, Dragonara and Vasto. Cantalupo was part of the Baranello canton, along with Colledanchise, Boiano, S. Polo, R. Mandolfi, S. Massimo, Macchiagodena, Li Camini (Sant'Elena), Rocca Aspromonte, Castropignano, Fossasecca, S. Stefano, Oratino, Busso, Vinchiaturo, Campobasso and Guardia. The 27th of September 1806, with the decree of King Giuseppe Napoleone, the Molise region became a province all by itself, with two districts of Campobasso and Isernia, to which, with the reform of 1811 was added the district of Larino. The province of Molise had as its capital the city of Campobasso (May 4, 1811). Isernia has only recently become a province... in 1970. In 1807, Cantalupo became part of the district of Isernia, which is now Circondario. The 11th of August 1815, it became the capital of Circondario, now Mandamento, and the communes of Roccamandolfi, Macchiagodena, S. Angelo in Grotte and Castelpizzuto were under her jurisdiction. This situation remained unchanged until 1892, when, because of the law of July 31, the districts of Carpinone and Castelpetroso were eliminated and became part of this area. The district of Cantalupo used to send only one representative to the province's council.

THE PHENOMENON OF BRIGANDAGE

In order to give a constructive picture of this brigandage, we must give a brief description of the economic and social situation that preceded it. We are able to present a picture of the civil conditions of the citizens of Cantalupo in 1811. Zarrilli furnishes us with the following information: "There were 414 land owners, those employed in the liberal arts were 10. The number of priests was large considering the number of citizens; there were, in fact, 5 priests. There were no friars. The largest group was made up by the contadini (country workers); there were 509. Finally, there were 13 beggars, one artist and one servant." In the years between 1821 and 1845, the livestock in the Molise declined drastically: from 300,000 sheep, 7,500 cows, 85,000 pigs, we have 100,000 sheeps, about 4,000 cows and 30,000 pigs. If we think that the livestock was not only a source of income but also a way of fertilizing the land, we can deduce that even the land had become sterile.

As a consequence, the yearly yields were low, and the contadini were in debt, to the advantage of the middle class. They ate very little, if at all, and many lost their homes and had nowhere to go to take shelter with their families. In this social and economic situation, as Arduino writes: "The only occasion to meet was the church: they went in masses, attracted by the pompous religious functions; the fairs were the only occasions for leaving the town. "Garibaldi's quest created hope for a total change in the political and social situation. In fact, at the beginning of the Mille's undertaking, there was hope of revenge for all the injustices suffered. However, since Garibaldi was too preoccupied with the idea of liberating Rome, he left the conquered church lands without a plan of division, allowing some members of the bourgeoisie to take over, and when some of the contadini occupied some of the lands, they were ferociously repressed: famous is the repression at Bronte lead by Nino Bixio.

A similar uprising by the contadini took place all over the territory of Isernia. The uprising of Cantalupo was led by Petrarca Giacinto and by the priest Perrella. In the clash at Castelpetroso 140 garibaldini were taken prisoners, along with two flags, horses and provisions. This situation, aggravated by the attitude of conquerors on the part of the Piedmontese soldiers and by the political blindness of the Piedmontese government, generated the phenomenon of brigandage. We are speaking of political blindness, because they were not aware that after the abolition of the existing customs barriers, the industries of the North had prostrated the few industries to the artisan level of the South in general and to the Molise in particular. So, brigandage was an act of rebellion on the part of the contadini, who formed armed groups, against the gentlemen of the bourgeoisie.

The bourgeoisie ignored this phenomenon by considering it an act of pure delinquency, while many were forced to grab their guns as the only way to save themselves. It is necessary to add that the contadini often went overboard, and that sometimes they would direct their rage towards the innocent, but all of these events took place in an atmosphere of vendetta which had arisen in the Molise following the annexation to Piedmont. "The good germs, states Jovine, don't have the chance to multiply; their desperate life does not give rest to the soul. Crime becomes a necessity of defense, and the atrocious examples of inhumane acts which they witness everyday, extinguish in them any hope for a better life. Slowly forgetting the sentimental and social motives or simply the miserable circumstances which led them into that type of life, their crimes became a sort of ferocious monotony, and many of the rebels became thieves and common delinquents."

The groups of brigands were numerous, and it would be idle to list them all with their deeds. We will look at the Cecchino Domenicangelo and Cimino Samuele group, which raged in the Cantalupo area. We have to ask ourselves who were these brigand leaders. Zarilli provides us with an exhaustive picture: "Domemicangelo Cecchino, an illiterate cantadino, had been a Bourbon soldier and had fought at Garigliano in favor of the staggering rule of Franscesco II. Disbanded, he had returned to his native town, and her the persecutions on the part of the Carabinieri had begun, forcing him into the life of an outlaw.

The same thing happened to Cimino, also a disbanded soldier, a poor coal man. When he returned to his town, he was not allowed to work, he was oppressed in a thousand ways, and he was beaten. The fact that he had been part of the bourbon army was continuously thrown into his face. Like Cecchino he hid in the woods and thought about revenge against his persecutors. We also have a physical description of Ceccino given to us by Perrella, which we faithfully report: "He was short, slim, thin; he had a sulky face without hair, a pug nose, fierce eyes, ashen coloring, and overall, he was a disgusting figure. More agile than a squirrel, smarter than a fox, with a wicked soul and an insensible heart, he was terror of Matese and of the surrounding communes." Cimino was the lover of Cecchino's sister, who followed the group in all their undertakings.

Before we go into their criminal undertakings, let's look at two written requests that were made by the brigands, as reported by P. Nobile: "Mr. D. Carlo, you are asked to send us 200 piastre in the name of Vincenzo Allo, send 4 hams and 15 pieces of bread. If you send us everything we are asking for everything will be well, otherwise we make you cry. Send everything before noon if you want to be safe. After reading this note, you have to send us your friend D. Vincenzo Allo. "The second note is addressed to archpriest Felice Innamorato of Roccamandolfi: "Dear archpriest D. Felice. Please send º_me a little bit of money because I need it to support my group and to live in the country. We don't do this to make a profit but only to live. Also send 250 ducati. Do not fail to do this, or your robe and your flesh as well as that of your brothers and parents will burn. If you do not send me this little bit of money, when I come to Roccamandolfi, the first house to burn will be yours. Total sum of money 250 ducati." Another item of interest that is reported by Nobili is that not having received what he had asked for from the priest, he went to the priest's house with his group; here he saw a picture of St. Joseph hanging on the wall which he mistook for Garibaldi, and he yelled, "I want to spit on this idiot of Garibaldi" but he withheld himself from doing so once he realized his mistake.

The 18th of June, 1861 the judge of Cantalupo ordered the captain of the national police to go in the outskirts of Grucella in order to surprise Cecchino and his group, but this came to nothing. The night of the 13th of August a group of 150 brigands led by Cecchino entered Cantalupo and in the clash that followed lieutenant Mancini of the national police was killed. Having started a fire all over the town, they sacked some houses with the help of some prisoners, who, freed by the brigands, joined their group. The houses that were devastated, as we learn from Nobili, were the ones of Ferdinando di Chiro, Costantino Cascella, the coffee shop of Francesco Petrecca, and the house of Vincenzo Mancini. During the sacking, they knocked down all the royal coat of arms and the pictures of the king that they ran into yelling "Hurrah for Francesco II." From Cantalupo the group moved on to Roccamandolfi where they killed D. Pasuqale and D. Gregorio Rizzo, Matteo and Benedetto de Filippo, and Giovanni Rinaldo. On the 26th of August 1861, in the territory of S. Gregorio, Cecchino and Cimino, because of a game of cards, had a fight. In the clash, Cimino was killed and Cecchino wounded his arm. Since he had to take care of his wound, Cecchino had to hide in woods more secure and known, between Roccamandolfi and Castel Pretroso.

Following a tip-off, the national police of Roccamandolfi were able to capture the bandit, who was shot on the 4th of September by a squadron commanded by lieutenant Pistia. With the disappearance of the two leaders, the group did not disappear, but continued to batter the area with new leaders, who were no less terrible or dangerous than the two mentioned above. The economic and social conditions began to improve only with emigration. The emigrated contadini only thought of the land that land which they had dreamed of possessing in 1799 and in 1860, part of which they had been able to take away from the bourgeoisie, who, because of emigration, had been deprived of enough help and found themselves in a precarious situation. When the emigration ended because of fascism, the economic situation of Molise fell again.

EMIGRATION

Francesco Jovine says that the Molise has a "gray and rough land, wrinkly mountains skinned by the landslides and crumbly rocks." An avaricious land that hardly ever gives back to the contadino the fruit for his hard work. To this we must add the fact that our contadino has never received any kind of professional instruction on rotation of the land or a guide to agricultural laws. Even the agricultural instruments have remained in the traditional forms: the cow or the donkey pulling the plow, and in many cases the contadino hoes the virgin land with his bare hands. The fractionated property has not allowed the contadino, nor was it convenient, to procure mechanical methods. Emigration is the natural outlet to a condition of displeasure which they found themselves in. Emigration began in the Molise right after the unification of Italy. IL Risveglio, (1899, II Year, No. 4), the newspaper edited in Agnone, denounces the regional situation. "While all the regions of Italy, some more, some less, were making an effort to better agriculture and the various related industries, only the province of Molise has never done anything: nothing, only indifference, indolence, failures, poverty, and the terrible exodus on the other side of the ocean."

In May 1897 a group of emigrants from Molise had a leaflet printed entitled "To our exploiters (in the Molise)." in which we can read: "Be warned that the working class is no longer drowsy with ignorance, but has awakened to the life to its emancipation, it no longer hears, because it no longer fears, your threats and the resignation preached by the clergy. You are big medieval beings, and you are now damaged goods, fading out as an historical principle. Emigration made us desert our poor land, because you so grossly exploited us. The breath of progress has wakened our dark minds demolishing our prejudices, our superstitions and the unreasonable beliefs of servant and master, exploited and exploiter. Aware that we are part of society and of life, we have set our minds to demolish this human structure full of hypocrisy and malicious allusions. This is our goal, and you can be sure that we will never give in when faced with your coalitions, because the working class has the most powerful forces from the production to the perseverance of our goals." You can imagine what an impact this writing had on all the Molise?

With the war, emigration stopped but began again in 1919 because of the crisis after the war. The real exodus began in 1951 due to unemployment and to the scarce industrial and agricultural activities. Emigration is directed not only to the North of Italy but to the other European countries, to the Americas, to Australia and other continents. Cantalupo is one of many towns from which, every year, people leave. All we need to do is to look at the most recent censuses to see the continuos exodus that takes place in Cantalupo. In the 1951 census there were 2,362 residents in Cantalupo. Ten years later, in the 1961 census, a drastic drop in population is shown with a population of 1,533, a decrease of 807 inhabitants. Such phenomenon continues, and in 1971 the population has declined to 1,053. Some return to the town to enjoy the fruits of his hard labor and to enjoy a well deserved rest. Other emigrants do not forget their town. Each year, in fact, they send money which enables the town to celebrate the patrons with feasts in a grandiose way. The person in contact with the town's emigrants is reverend Giuseppe DiGregorio, head of the Cantalupo nel Sannio's parish.

AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE FIRST YEARS OF 1900

The work of preparing the ground for the sowing was done with steel plows pulled by animals, mules in particular. The plows were of different weights depending on the type of work that needed to be done; they varied from 25 to 40 Kg. The sowing was done by the most capable contadini. The yields were divided in furrows. For the sowing, they used wood plows that were lighter and more manageable. The lack of easy access streets, most of the roads were mule tracks, made the sowing more difficult for both the transportation of the seeds and for the daily trips on the muddy roads, in which the mules would sink up to their knees. For this reason, those who had someplace to stay in the countryside would remain there for the duration of the work, so avoiding the trips back and forth. When the crop was ready, the harvesters would reap with the scythe from dawn to dusk. During busy days such as these, the workers often did not have the possibility to get a drink of water, because the wells, if there were any, did not always contain drinkable water and the supply of water that they have would get warm under the sun's rays.

After the harvest, the sheaves were carried to a threshing floors where, with the trampling of mules, horses, or donkeys, they were threshed, a very hard and tiring work. It was necessary to move and to turn the threshed harvest four or five times, to winnow and separate the grain from the hay. The contadini did not have watches to regulate the time, so they used different techniques to orient themselves: the shadow of the farmhouse, the shadow of persons, the shadow of the raised finger on the palm of the hand, and the position of the sun. In an agricultural economy so backward, sheep breeding had an important role: the local feasts and those of the surrounding towns enabled the sale of livestock. During the summer, the animals were grazed during the night, at the light of the moon. Besides the flock of animals, which not everybody had, we have to consider that almost every family had a pig, a few chickens, and a goat for their family needs. The vegetable garden that many had behind the house provided the necessary vegetables and fruits, so that they were almost self-sufficient.

A TOURIST VIEW

The evolution of the phenomenon of tourism in Italy began around the first years of 1900. A gradual expansion has taken place year after year. From 472,000 in 1900 we have reached 27 million in 1974. The reasons that explain this continuous expansion are many. It is one of the biggest phenomenon's that interest Italy, with particular reference to the Mezzogiorno (the South) which has been defined as "the great reserve of Italian tourism. "Particular attention must be given to our region, because it finds itself in the right conditions to develop such phenomenon due to its climate and its geographic position. Some areas of the region have had a good tourist development such as the coastal area and that of Mainarde. We also have a virgin area, the massif of Matese, to which attention has been given only in the past few years. The hospitality of the people of Molise is well known, especially in the mountain towns. This hospitality is spontaneous and conquers the soul of the tourist.

They are morally sound people, proud of their traditions, respectful of others. Attractive for the tourists are the archeological monuments, the objects produced by the artisans, the folklore celebrations, and the dishes of the local cuisine. There is also the beauty of the countryside, the freshness of the air, and the therapeutical value of the climate, the richness of uncontaminated water, the extensiveness of the forests, and the large green areas that cover the territory. The Matese still preserves its original beauty of color and lines, and nature is almost intact, and inhabitedcenters fit in the scenery without disturbing it. The hotel complex at Campitello Matese and the skiing equipment are the first realizations that aim to create an incentive to utilize the entire territory of Matese. Mountain towns such as Cantalupo, Roccamandolfi, Boiano, S. Paolo and others are interested in such development. They are already part of the "Tourist District" an organization which has the goal of creating the substructures for a rapid growth of tourism in the area, taking advantage of the benefits that the law provides for such districts. The vocation of the Matese region must be looked at under this light, and in a sense it could constitute a precious resource and an end to the fatal phenomenon of emigration in our country.

THE CITY TODAY

Cantalupo is a pleasant city, geographically located at the foot of the Matese on a hill at the right of the small river Rio, in the area where the Biferno river begins to stream. In the South, it is bordered by the Roccamandolfi plain, by S. Massimo in the south-east, by Macchiagodena in the north, and by S. Maria del Molise in the north-west. The city is situated at 587 meters above sea level. The landscape is varied and picturesque. Its air is healthy and its climate mild, its nature serene and pleasant. It seems to be resting, wrapped in the large cloak of its mother: the Matese, and encircled by a large number of scattered houses. These farms scattered in the Cantalupo plain give the landscape a characteristic aspect. The hospitality of the people of Cantalupo is famous. During summer, many citizens of Cantalupo now residing elsewhere as well as other tourists from other regions come to Cantalupo to spend their vacation. The Cantalupo plain extends for 1,551 hectares, part of which is cultivated and the rest is woodland. The woods are the decoration and the richness of the area and are privately owned.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

Cantalupo is an agricultural center of some importance. The main products are: wheat, corn, forage, table grapes. Grazing of animals also takes place; in particular, that of cows and sheep. Industry is represented in the food sector by the mills owned by Gentile Biagio, in the building sector by Iacobucci, and in the textile sector by the wool factory owner, Mr. Orsatti. In 1920, near the railroad station an electric shop opened, consisting of a saw mill and a mill which later could have produced electrical energy. This was the second shop in Cantalupo. Tuesday is market day. Fairs are held twice a year: the fair of S. Gennaro for goods and livestock is held the 17, 18 and 19 of September; the fair of S. Andrea is held the 27, 28, 29 and 30 of November, also for goods and livestock.

POPULATION FROM THE XVIII CENTURY TO DATE 1780

1,748 inhabitants 1795

2,015 1835

2,339 1861

2,352 1881

2,371 1901

3,244 1911

3,338 1911 until World War II the population remains at a steady level after the war it begins to reduce in population

2,362 1951

1,553 1961

1,053 1971

CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
.

The city of Cantalupo can consider itself to have a fairly good center of schools. At the moment, there are the following schools: Asilo Infantile Statale (nursery school), whose building belongs to the church; an elementary school, and a secondary school (scuola media). The schools are located for the most part in new buildings which allows a constructive school life. The city has a fairly good number of professionals.

FOR CURIOSITY.

Around the end of the year 1700, on the slopes of a mountain in the Cantalupo plain sprang a liquid called "petronic oil" but the spring probably disappeared with the earthquake of July 26, 1805.

CEMETERIES

The old cemetery was located at the entranc e

DISTANCE IN KILOMETERS FROM MAJOR CENTERS

From Isernia to Cantalupo km. 18

From Campobasso km. 39

From Naples km. 182

From Rome km. 198

Since 1970 when Isernia became a province, Cantalupo is one of the 52 communes that are part of the province of Isernia.

MAYORS - PODESTA - PREFECT COMMISSIONERS

De Gaglia, Zaccaria 1809

Petrecca, Ferdinando 1811
De Gaglia, Ascanio 1815-1816
Moauro, Raffaele 1817-1821
Perrella, Vincenzo 1822-1626
Del Re, Carmine 1827-1829
Moauro, Raffaele 1820-1832
Perrella, Libero 1833-1839
Perrella, Vincenzo 1839-1844
De Gaglia, Alessandro 1845-1846
Crivellone, Biagio 1846-1849
Moauro, Giacinto 1861-1862
De Maio, Gennaro 1862-1863
Cascella, Constantino 1863-1866
De Maio, Gennaro 1867-1869
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1870-1872
De Maio, Gennaro 1873-1874
Forchione, Vincenzo 1875
De Gaglia, Ascanio 1876-1885
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1886-1895
Perrella, Felice 1896
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1896
Forchione, Vincenzo 1897-1907
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1907-1909
Perrella, Felice 1909-1910
Forchione, Gaetano 1910-1912
De Gaglia, Eustachio 1912-1914
Petrecca, Leopoldo 1914
Monaco, Cosmo 1914-1920
Perrella, Annibale 1920-1921
Di Re, Gaetano 1922
D'Agnillo, Francesco Antonio 1921-1922 Prefect Commissioner
Monaco, Cosmo 1923 - 1926 Prefect Commissioner
Barbato, Antionio 1925-1931 Podesta
Carile, Raffaello 1931 1931 Prefect Commissioner
Carile, Raffaello 1939-1940 Podesta
Cornacchione, Alfredo 1940-1941 Podesta
Ruggiero, Vittorio, 1941Prefect Commissioner
Cornacchione, Alfredo 1941-1943 Podesta
Bocchetti, Giovanni 1944-1946 Mayor
De Maio, Alfredo 1944-1945
Ranallo, Antonio 1945-1946
Barbato, Michele 1946-1956
Barbato, Antonio 1956-1957
Cardono, Michele 1957-1964
De Lazzaro, Mario 1964-present (1977)

THE PARISH

From an ecclesiastical point of view, Cantalupo has always been part of the diocese of Boiano, and each year the parish of Cantalupo contributed food or money to the bishop of Boiano.

In 1929, the year in which bishop Alberto Romita transferred the bishop's seat to Campobasso, the diocese was named Boiano-Campobasso and the parish of Cantalupo, even though the commune in 1970 became part of the province of Isernia, remained under the jursidicition of the bishop of Campobasso.

There is only one parish S. Salvatore, who is the commune's patron saint, whose feast is on the 6th of August.

Church of San Salvatore. It was built in 1700. It is located in the center of town, in the ancient section, and is easily reached by taking the Michele Pietravalle road.

Its interior is 31 meters long with three isles, 18 meters wide and 20 meters high, with wood sculptures from 1700.

It has been restored various times during the centuries. The last restoration was done in 1970 with money collected by the citizens on the initiative of D.Giuseppe Di Gregorio, the only priest in Cantalupo.

In 1976 the wood putti were stolen.

Church of the Addolorata. It is a small church, built in relatively recent years, with no particular art pieces.

During the fascist era it was taken over by the fascist. After the war, it resumed its normal function.

Church of The Carmine. It is located in the Taverna area. It was recently built. Religious services are held only on holidays for the convenience of the inhabitants of the Taverna area.

S. Antonio Abbey. The church was located in the territory of Carinci, near the Bottone stream. The church was to be run by priests belonging to a certain religious order.

This is reported by Perrella: "In 1523, the bishop of Boiano, Francitto Orsini, had an inventory taken of the belongings of the ancient S. Antonio Abbey." The church was destroyed.

S. Andrea Abbey. Very old church located in the Cantalupo plain which was donated to the monastery of Montecassino by a Leone, priest of Boiano. The church no longer exists.

The Priests: Libetti, Pietro 1705-1730
Tesauro, Agustion 1730-1732
Martelli, Carlo 1733-?
Maretlli, Silvestro 1768-1810
Ruberto, Filippo 1810-182
Durate, Giovenale di Cameli 1812-1818
Ruberto, Filippo 1818-1819
De Gaglia, Cesare 1819-1821
Petrecca, Gennaro 1821-1836
Perrella, Tito 1836-1889
Monaco, Gennaro 1889-1891
Gatta, Francesco 1891-1904
Marsilio, Francisco 1904-1905
Gatta, Antonio 1905-1934
De Falco, Nicola 1934-1938
PP. Antoniani di Boiano 1938-1939
Camino, Luigi 1939-1945
Notte, Raffaele 1945-1946
Di Gregorio, Gisseppe 1946-at least 1980

STATISTICAL DATA CONCERNING THE YEARS 1961-1970

The Cantalupo plain in the years 1961-1970 was distributed as follows: In 1961 there were 256 farms privately owned and run. In 1970 they were reduced to 178. The area used for cultivation was 1,195 hectares in 1961 and in 1970 it had been reduced to 1,069 hectares. In 1961 there were only 2 farms with salaried employees and in 1970 these became 11. Average size of farms, 1961 23 hectares and in 1970 90 hectares.

There were 13 other types of businesses in 1960, covering ar area of 45 hectares, in 1970 there were none.

As can be seen the number of businesses in this ten year period declined by 82, the cultivated land decreased from 1264 hectares to 1159. The population also declinded dramatically from 1553 persons in 1961 to 1053 in 1970.

EPIDEMICS - FAMINE - EARTHQUAKES

Between 1525 and 1530, the plague took many victims. In 1656 a larger plague took more lives in the towns of Molise.

There werealso terrible famines: very grave was the one in 1764; Carpinone which had 1000 inhabitants, only in the month of May 1764, had 146 deaths; and Cantalupo had to open a new cemetery to accommodate all the dead.

There were also many earthquakes, which reduced the population and destroyed homes and churches:

In 853, the earthquake destroyed the entire territory (F. Ughelli); other earthquakes in the area 1117, 1125, 1131, 1273, 1279, 1300, 1349, 1456, 1561,1627, 1629, 1638, 1640, 1688, 1703, 1704, 1706, 1799.

A major earthquake, called the earthquake of Sant' Anna, occurred on July 26,1805, the epicenter was at Frosolone. 181 persons died in Cantalupo.

Earthquakes continued in 1837, 1841, 1856, 1886, 1913, 1914 and 1932.

CULTURAL AND CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS

City Information Center. Assists the poor and the unemployed town people.

Cultural and recreational club: Place where young people spend their free time, conversing about social and cultural problems.

Pro-local. Association promoting various initiatives of recreational, cultural and tourist character.

Pharmacy. Of Dott. Onorato

Trattoria. Of Mr. Del Riccio

MONUMENTS AND PALACES

Monuments to Soldiers. It is located in Piazza Alfonso Perrella. It was inaugurated in 1967, constructed by the initiative of ex-soldiers and sponsored by the city administration. It is dedicated to the memory of Cantalupo's citizens who died during the two World Wars: 1915-1918 and 1940-1945. ( An Antonio Crivellone is listed on the monument).

The Petrecca Palace constructed also in the XVIII century. Inside are residuals of antique ceramics and the private family chapel.

The Morra Palace built by the Morra family towards the end of 1700. One of the Morras was named Duke of Cantalupo because he married a Di Gennaro, the last of the Di Gennaro family of Cantalupo.

OFFICES - ASSOCIATIONS

City Police, Chief of Police
Courthouse
Fire Department
Internal Revenue Service
Post Office
Welfare Office for farmers
Welfare Office for craftsmen
Telephone Company

FOLKLORE

Another characteristic aspect of the Molisana life is the folklore. The variety and abundance of folkloristic traditions of the Molise is due to the flux of immigration to the region during the centuries, of people rich of folklore, like the Yugoslavians, the Moslems, and the Bizantini.

The spirit of conversation of past generations allows us not only to reconstruct but also to live the customs and the traditions of the Molise people who have preceded us.

In the folklore lives the culture, the history and the past of the Molise people.

The picturesque customs of the Molisani constitute an important ethnic element. The customs, like the traditions, with the passage of time also have undergone some changes; the essential elements vary from town to town, from area to area; each of the 136 communes that make up our region has certain characteristics.

"In all of the Boiano area, (the people dress with wool clothes made with their own hands, and under their clothes they wear a shirt made out of rough hemp; they use the same clothes for winter and summer." (Casimiro Spina di Boiano)

The older people still have clothes like the ) ones described above. Social position permits to have more clothes. The most beautiful costume, the one richly embroidered, is worn on holidays. The most beautiful costume is well taken care of because it is going to be worn when dieting and will be worn in the tomb. Gold, pins, and necklaces complete the adornment of the costume.

Another part of folklore is represented by songs and dances.

In general, they are love songs, very melodious, sung all together during the wheat reaping and the olive picking. The elders still remember the themes of the areas. These songs are destined to disappear because very seldom do we have them in written form.

The most common dances are the polka and the tarantella. These are danced accompanied by an harmonica or an accordion. The most opportune time for dancing is during mardis gras.

Among the oldest traditions we must remember the Procession of the Dead Christ. It takes place on Good Friday and all the people of Cantalupo participate.

HOLIDAYS

Feast of del Rosario and S. Michele, celebrated on the Tuesday
after the first Sunday of June; Feast of S. Anna, the 25,26,27th of July;
Feast of the Carmine, August 30th;
Feast of the Addolorata, 29th of September.

These feasts are celebrated with great solemnity, especially the Feast of S. Anna, thanks to the money sent by the emigrants living abroad.

THE FEAST OF S. ANNA

The feast of S. Anna is the feast most longed for by the residents of the central part of town, by the contadini of the plain, and by those of the nearby towns. Already a few days before the feast the piazzas are occupied by the merchants, who come from far, as each one of them wants to be in the central spot in order to make more sales. During the feast days there is an unusual movement in the town, new faces, children screaming, crowded streets. It is the joy of the feast that takes over everybody.

In the afternoon, from the main church, begins the procession that spreads in all the streets of the town followed by many people who are there to express their devotion to the Saint.

In the evening, there are some concerts, with some orchestras with famous singers, and the fireworks that end each feast day

BIBLIOGRAFIA

Masciotta, G: Il Molise, Arti grafiche E. Di Mauro, Cava dei Tirrent, 1952
Ciarlanti, G: Memorie storiche del Sannio, Is., Cavallo, 1564
Leone, M: Chronica Mon. Casinensis, Cassino
Gams, P: Series Espiscoporum E. Catholicae, Ratisbona, 1873
Ughelli, F: Italia Sacra
Capocelatro, F: Diario cont. la storia delle cose avvenute nel Reame di Napoli negli anni 1647-50, Nobile, NA 1853
Perralla, A: L'Anno 1799 nella prov. C.basso, Tip V. Maione, CE 1900
Carlomagno, C: Agnone dalle origini ai nostri giorni, T. Lampo, CB, 1965
Zarrilli, G: Il Molise dal 1860 al 1900, Ed. Casa Mol. libro, CB
Zarrilli, G: Dagli albori del Risorgimento all'unita d'Italia, idem
Capuana, L: La Sicilia e il brigantaggio, Stab. Tip. It., Roma 1892
Nobile, P. I Briganti, Almanacco d. Molise, Ed. Nocera, 1970
Jovine, F: Saggi e studi sul Brigantaggio merid., Belfagor
Jovine, F: Viaggio nel Molise, Ed. Einaudi, MI, 1968
Tirabasso, A: Dizionario Biografico d. Molise, Tip. Ls Squilla del Molise, Orantino, 1932
Sella, P: Le decime dei secoli XIII-XIV Aprutium-Molisium, Biblioteca Ap. Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano, 1926
Molise Economico, Anno III, num. 4, luglio-agosto 1976
Serie Almanacco del Molise, passim, Ed. Nocera, CB.
Arduino, A: Il Molise dall'unita d'Italia all Repubblica Tip. Minichetti-Guglielmi, Isernia 1975

The End of this brief history of Cantalupo.


Some interesting facts:

Cantalopes. It has been documented that melon seeds were brought back from Persia by the Roman Legions. They grew well in a small village south of Rome called Cantalupo.

Liquor. Cantalupo produces a liquor called "AMARO - Cantalupo," which features the head of the singing wolf and has a picture of the War Memorial on the label. It is very strong.

Il Crivellone. In Milan, Italy on the west side of town, near the Fiera Campionaria, there is a square named "Piazzale Crivellone." The square was named after a very famous painter named "Il Crivellone" who lived from 1672 to 1730. Some of his painting hang in the Sforza Castle, the home of the Duke of Milan when it was a city-state. Il Crivellone's real name was Angelo Maria Crivelli. I suspect that he was a large man, either in stature or reputation and thus "Big Crivelli - Il Crivellone."

Recommended reading. Gay Talese wrote an excellent book - "Unto The Sons" - which chronicles the lives of a family from Italy (south of Cantalupo) and their immigration to the United States. This book will give one a feeling of what life was like and what our forefathers experienced both in America and Italy in the early 1900s.

Return to The Crivellones

SEE LINK

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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

THE CLAIMS
OF
MICHAEL MORAN
AND
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

THIS IS A TRUE STORY

OF

THE DIVINE COUPLE

AND

THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS

ON

 THIS DAY JANUARY 29, 2004 1:00 PM

 MICHAEL RAYMOND MORAN

THE COUSIN

OF

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III 

 CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

VISITED ME AT MY APT IN ALAMEDA, CA AND TOLD ME THINGS HE COULD OF NOT KNOWN THAT WERE IN MY APT SUCH AS THE PICTURES OF HERA AND ZEUS -

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

THIS IS A TRUE STORY

OF

THE DIVINE COUPLE

AND

THE MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS

ON

 THIS DAY JANUARY 29, 2004 1:00 PM

 MICHAEL RAYMOND MORAN

THE COUSIN

OF

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III 

 CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA

VISITED ME AT MY APT IN ALAMEDA, CA AND TOLD ME THINGS HE COULD OF NOT KNOWN THAT WERE IN MY APT SUCH AS THE PICTURES OF HERA AND ZEUS -

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA P

I FEEL THAT JFK,JR  OR LAWRENCE AS JFK,JR

AND

SHARI BROBECK

HAVE BEEN HAVING AN AFFAIR AND HE PAYS HER 5,000.00 EVERY 5 MINUTES FOR BLOW JOBS AND SHE MAKES ABOUT 300,000.00 A DAY DOING THIS AND HAS THE ABILITY WITH THE HELP OF A CHARGER TO ASCEND AND DESCEND FOR HIS PLEASURE WHEN HE WANTS IT

SHE BELIEVE SHE IS THE HOLY SPIRIT AND HERE IS WHY

SHARI WAS HELPING ME MOVE FROM MY HOUSE ON TARRYTON WHERE I WAS JUDGING SPIRITS BECAUSE MY HOUSE WAS ON A MAGNET LAY LINE AND SHE SAW HIM IN MY BEDROOM AND HE WAS A SHADOW PERSON AND GOT SCARED AND RAN DOWN THE HALL TO MY OFFICE AND LEFT

THEN SHARI AND MY MOTHER TEAMED UP TO TAKE ME TO A PARANORMAL DOCTOR BECAUSE THEY THOUGHT I WAS GOING CRAZY AND WANTED ME TO LEAVE MY HOUSE AND THIS MADE LAWRENCE - JFK,JR REALLY MAD AND HE MADE HER SMALL AND TRIED TO PUT HER IN THE CONTAINER OF EVIL IN MY BODY BUT SHE GOT OUT AND STOLE MY ABILITIES TO ASCEND AND DESCEND

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 I HAVE POWER PICTURES OF ANCIENT SYMBOLS HANGING IN A ROOM THAT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN SEEN WHEN YOU FIRST WALK IN

AND

 WE HAVE NOT SPOKEN IN MANY YEARS HE LIVES IN LOS ANGELES 

I ASKED HIM TO FOLLOW ME AND SHOWED HIM WHAT HE WAS ENVISIONING

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA 

I FEEL THAT JFK,JR  OR LAWRENCE AS JFK,JR

AND

SHARI BROBECK

HAVE BEEN HAVING AN AFFAIR AND HE PAYS HER 5,000.00 EVERY 5 MINUTES FOR BLOW JOBS AND SHE MAKES ABOUT 300,000.00 A DAY DOING THIS AND HAS THE ABILITY WITH THE HELP OF A CHARGER TO ASCEND AND DESCEND FOR HIS PLEASURE WHEN HE WANTS IT

SHE BELIEVE SHE IS THE HOLY SPIRIT AND HERE IS WHY

SHARI WAS HELPING ME MOVE FROM MY HOUSE ON TARRYTON WHERE I WAS JUDGING SPIRITS BECAUSE MY HOUSE WAS ON A MAGNET LAY LINE AND SHE SAW HIM IN MY BEDROOM AND HE WAS A SHADOW PERSON AND GOT SCARED AND RAN DOWN THE HALL TO MY OFFICE AND LEFT

THEN SHARI AND MY MOTHER TEAMED UP TO TAKE ME TO A PARANORMAL DOCTOR BECAUSE THEY THOUGHT I WAS GOING CRAZY AND WANTED ME TO LEAVE MY HOUSE AND THIS MADE LAWRENCE - JFK,JR REALLY MAD AND HE MADE HER SMALL AND TRIED TO PUT HER IN THE CONTAINER OF EVIL IN MY BODY BUT SHE GOT OUT AND STOLE MY ABILITIES TO ASCEND AND DESCEND

RODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL

 

 I HAVE POWER PICTURES OF ANCIENT SYMBOLS HANGING IN A ROOM THAT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN SEEN WHEN YOU FIRST WALK IN

AND

 WE HAVE NOT SPOKEN IN MANY YEARS HE LIVES IN LOS ANGELES 

I ASKED HIM TO FOLLOW ME AND SHOWED HIM WHAT HE WAS ENVISIONING

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III

 
 
OF WIDSOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA 

"Impossible Dream"

To dream the impossible dream
To fight the unbeatable foe
To bear with unbearable sorrow
And to run where
the brave dare not go
To right the unrightable wrong
And to love pure and chaste from afar
To try when your arms are too weary
To reach the unreachable star
This is my quest
To follow that star
No matter how hopeless
No matter how far
To fight for the right
Without question or pause
To be willing to march,
march into hell
For that heavenly cause
And I know
If I'll only be true
To this glorious quest
That my heart
Will lie peaceful and calm
When I'm laid to my rest
And the world will be
better for this
That one man, scorned
and covered with scars,
Still strove with his last
ounce of courage
To reach the unreachable,
the unreachable,
The unreachable star
And I'll always dream
The impossible dream
Yes, and I'll reach
The unreachable star

NIN-ME-SARA: Lady of countless cosmic powers

This is the first english translation of Dr. Annette Zgoll’s german, academic translation of Nin-me-sara found at the beginning of her book, "Der Rechtsfall der En-hedu-Ana im Lied Nin-me-sara"(1997), "En-Hedu-Ana's Lawsuit in the poem Nin-me-sara". It is a combined effort between myself and Tatjana Dorsch, who has very accessibly translated the whole book for me. It is the most recent, updated translation of Enheduana’s most famous poem since Dr. William Hallo’s grounbreaking translation, "The Exaltation of Inanna" in 1968. Dr. Zgoll has generously given of her time and corrected it and allowed me to post it here.



          1. Queen of all the ME, too numerous to count,
          rising forth as resplendent light [1]

          2. Woman [2], most driven, clothed in frightening radiance,
          loved by An and Uras,

          3. An's nugig [3],
          you are above all the great SUHkese-breastplates,

          4. You, who love the right aga-crown [4],
          who is suited for the en-priest-hood,

          5. empowered with all of its all seven ME --

          6. my queen! You are the guardian of the great ME!

          7. You have uplifted the ME,
          you have held the Me in your hand.

          8 You have gathered the ME,
          you have clasped the ME to your chest.

          9 Like a dragon you cast venom upon the enemy land.

          10 In the regions where you thundered like Iskur,
          Asnan no longer exists because of you

          11 Flooding waters surge down on such an enemy land

          12 You are the supreme one in Heaven and Earth,
          you are their Inana!



[1] This can also connote through homophone and homonym: "Queen of the countless battles, (as) a raging storm rising"

[2] Or we can read the sign of 'munus-zi' as 'zirru': “female”( bird). This is a title of Ningal, that is of Enheduanna.
- Dr. Joan Westenholz has identified zirru as a title of the goddess Ningal, used by Enheduanna in her article, “Enheduanna, En-Priestess, Hen of Nanna,Spouse of Nanna”. In this article she deduces that Enheduanna is endowed with this title of zirru to convey that she is the human embodiment of Ningal.

[3] nugig is a title of Inanna in the context of the exercise of power or the broadening of power, important in the context of legitimization of rulers.
-One of Dr. Zgoll’s theories is that Enheduanna herself, as en-priestess of Nanna in Ur, is endowed with the power to legitimate a king’s rule.

[4] I.e., Inanna loves the aga-crown/cap (object). It can also be read as: the aga-crown/cap (subject) loves Inanna, whereby then the aga metonomycal stands for Nanna, compare chapter 3.4.-- The attribute “right” is the same word as in line 2 “driven” , it can be understood here also as a replacement for ‘thirst for creating’.
(dictionary definition of metonymy- one word is put for another that it suggests; as, we say, a man keeps a good table instead of good food; we read Virgil, that is, his poems; a man has a warm heart, that is, warm affections)





          13 Unceasing raging fire,
          you shower down upon the land of Sumer

          14 Queen, whom An gave the ME,
          you ride atop a beast

          15 Authorized by the fate-determining word of An,
          you utter words.[5]

          16 The great rites are yours--
          who else could fathom their meaning?

          17 Destroyer of enemy lands-
          you empowered the storm

          18. Beloved of Enlil,
          you let terror reign over the land of Sumer

          19. You stood prepared,
          waiting to fulfill the orders of An

          20. My Queen!
          All enemy lands bow down at the sound of your roar!

          21. Under your fearsome radiance,
          your terrible glare and storm, the people

          22. turned their steps toward you in mute dread

          23. -- of all the ME,
          you had grasped the most terrible and deeply stirring--

          24. Mankind [6] opened the gateway of tears, on your account [7]

          25. They must walk the path to the house of all the great laments,
          on your account.[8]



[5] Or: “Who, authorized through the fate-determining mouth of An, says words”.

[6] In reference to nam-lu-ulu (mankind, men) line 21.

[7] literally: “to you” (or because of you)

[8] literally: “to you” (or because of you)



          26. Because of you [9], all [10] had been ripped away
          even before the battle.

          27. My Queen! With your strength a tooth can even crush flint [11]!

          28. Like an invasive storm you barge in.

          29. With the howling storm you howl.

          30. With Iskur you thunder.

          31. With raging thunderstorm you do exhaust,

          32. while your own foot has never yet tired.

          33. With the harp of laments
          one [12] strikes up a song of lamentation

          34. My Queen! The Anuna, the great gods,

          35. Like terrified [13] bats,
          fluttered away from you to the top of the mounds of ruins.

          36. They could not withstand your devastating glance [14].

          37. They cannot stand up against the fright on your brow.



[9] Literally: “to you” . (or because of you)

[10] Arms, troups, idols, fighting strength etc...

[11] In Sumerian dictionary tooth--tartar.

[12] Referring to nam-lu-ulu (“mankind”, “men”).

[13 ] Literally: “flying around”.

[14] Variant writing: “they cannot withstand”.



          38. Who shall soothe your angry heart?[15]

          39. Your hostile heart has become too violent to pacify!

          40. Queen, has your soul [16] really been satisfied?
          Queen, is your heart really now filled with joy?

          41. Your rage does not cool, great daughter of Suen! [17]

          42. Queen, greater than the enemy land--
          who would dare take away any of your territory? [18]

          43 You take the ‘mountain range’ [19] into your territory:
          its Asnan is no longer.[20]

          44 Fire was set against its great gate. [21]

          45 Blood flowed in its river for you,
          its people had to drink it for you. [22]

          46 Their troops, all gathered together, [23]
          had to surrender themselves to you.

          47 Even their elite troups, united together,
          had to be struck down for you.

          48 Even their strong men- all of them,
          had to stand before you [24]

          49 In the town’s places of pleasure, a storm rages.

          50 They hunt down their best men as captives for you.



[15] Literally ‘cool’ with connotation ‘refresh’.

[16] Literally also “liver”, “stomach’.

[17] Another translation possibility: “Rage (glowing) and not cooling,
great daugher of Suen!”

[18] Literally: “your earth”.

[19] Compare chapter 3.6.2.

[20] Some texts: “When you.... the ‘mountain ranges’” LaC: “you looked angrily upon
the enemy land , ....”; UnH “When you looked angrily at the enemy land”.

[21] UrB: “in ihre (their, her, your) great temple”.

[22] 2 text segments: “they have nothing to drink”.

[23] Other translation possibility, also in the following lines” “in their fear”.

[24] NiW: “stood in front of you”.



          51. The city, which would not say “This land is yours!” [25]

          52. where the people did not say “He is your loving father!”--

          53. He has spoken your fate-determining word [26]:
          the territory is restored beneath your foot.

          54. Then care [27] disappears from within,
          from their stall.

          55. That woman there -
          she no longer speaks of love with her spouse.

          56. At night she no longer holds counsel with him.

          57. She no longer reveals her innermost self to him ,
          which holds the hope of future life[28].

          58. Aggressive wild cow, great daughter of Suen,

          59. Queen, greater than heaven-
          who would dare take any of your territories away from you?



[25] NiMM and LaB: “The enemy city, which has not said “To you

[26] Variant: “ spoken from your fate-determining word”.

[27] Another word variant yielded the translation: “from the mother love”.
Literal translation: “Then... the foot is slipped”.

[28] Literally: “the fate-determining thing of her insides”.



          60 The Great queen (NIN.GAL) of queens,
          born for the rightful [29] ME,

          61 born of a fate-laden body,
          you are even greater than your own mother,

          62 full of wisdom, foresight, queen over all lands,

          63. who allows existence to many,
          I now strike up your fate-determining song!

          64 All powerful divinity, suitable for the ME,
          that which you have said magnificently is the most powerful! [31]

          65. Of unfathomable heart [32], oh highly driven woman [33],
          of radiant heart, your ME [34], I will list for you now!

          66. Into my fate-determining Gipar [35], I had entered for you.

          67. I, the en-priestess, I, En-hedu-Ana [36].

          68. While I carried the basket, I struck up the song of jubilation,

          69. as though I had not lived there [38],
          they offered the death sacrifice. [37]

          70. I came close to the light,
          there the light became scorching to me.

          71. I came close to the shadow,
          there it was veiled by a storm.

          72. My sweet mouth became venomous [39].

          73. That with which I gave delight, turned to dust.



[29] See the opening of line 4: the adjective “right” also comprises the connotation
of true powerfulness.

[30] The goddess Ningal. Literally: “as her own mother”.

[31] Simultaneously valid to the version: ”What you have spoken in as great a manner,
is the ‘most powerful’.”, i.e. “No one can become more praised than you”.

[32] By the use of “heart” the connotation of “Anger” from the context of line 38-41is
not to be overlooked.

[33] NiRR: ‘zirru’, “(bird)woman”; this version is also possible in the parallel text.
It is a title of Ningal, that is, Enheduanna; compare with chapter 6.1.

[34]NiRR: “the fate-deciding ME.” LaB, UnC: ”the rightful ME”.

[35] A part of the temple complex of the moongod in Ur, which encompasses the
residence of the en-Priestess and the shrine of Ningal.

[36] The name means translated “En,Ornament of An”. Compare to chapter 4.5.

[37] UrB, UrG, LaB, write euphemistically instead “the beautiful place”. NiRR: “One of
them has set down my meal (for the gods)”. NiA: “.....one of them offered, on his account
as if I had never lived there.”

[38] Literally: “Haven’t I not lived there?”

[39] This version is in Text NiC and Text NiHHH, all other texts have one of the
homophonic expressions. NiRR writes “bitter”.



          74. My fate with Suen and Lugal-Ane,

          75. report it to An!
          May An resolve it for me!

          76. Report it to An immediately.
          An will resolve it for us!

          77 "The Lady will tear away the destiny of Lugal-Ane.

          78. At her feet lie hostile land and flood.

          79. She is truly mighty-
          she will make the town tremble before her.

          80. Go (before the court),
          so that she will be calm in her heart for me!"[40]

          81. En-hedu-Ana am I,
          I will now say a prayer to you.

          82. My tears, like sweet beer

          83. I now shed them freely for you, fate-determining Inana,
          "Your judgement!" I will say to you. [41]

          84. As for ASimbabbar,
          concern yourself not!

          85. While changing the purfication rites of the fate-determining An,
          he [42:Lugalane] altered everything for him,

          86. he tore away the Eana from An!

          87. He showed no awe for the most venerable God (AN)!

          88. This house, whose abundance he [43:AN] was not sated with,
          whose beauty he had not tasted,

          89. he [44:Lugalane] turned this house into a despised home for him!

          90. All the while, upon entering, as if he were the companion,
          he approached me with envy! [45]

          91. My driven, divine, wild cow!
          You must drive away this 'someone',
          you must seize this 'someone'!

          92. In this place where life is made possible--
          what am I?

          93. This rebellious territory, despised by your Nanna:
          An should force them to surrender!

          94. This city-- An should strike it down!

          95. Enlil should curse it!

          96. The mother shall not soothe her crying child!



[40] In other texts: "so that she calms her heart for me."

[41] NiA, LaB: "Be hailed", UrD "The Judge!"/"Pass judgement!", Niff "(you) attacked".

[42] Meaning Lugal-Ane. see chapter 5.2 and 5.3.

[43] Meaning the God, An.

[44] Meaning Lugal-Ane .

[45] Literally:"his envy".



          97. Queen! The laments which were struck up over the land, [46]

          98. your ship of wailing should be left behind in the enemy land! [47]

          99. And because of my fate-determining song -- must I die? [48]

          100. I-- my Nanna has cared not for me [49].

          101. In the rebellious land,
          they completely and utterly destroyed me.

          102. ASimbabbar most certainly has not passed a final judgement upon me!

          103. Has he spoken it-- does it mean anything?
          Has he not spoken it-- does it mean anything?

          104. After he stood there in triumph,
          he expelled me from the temple.

          105. He made me fly like a swallow from the window-
          my life was consumed --[50]

          106. and so I must go to the thorny undergrowth of the enemy land.

          107. He tore the rightful aga-crown [51] of en-ship from me.

          108. Handing me a dagger, he said,
          "This is now your ornament!" [52]

          109. One and only Queen, beloved of An,

          110. Mighty is your fate-determining heart,
          for my sake, may it be turned to its place! [53]

          111. Beloved wife of Usumgal-Ana [54],

          112. From the base to the zenith of heaven,
          you are the great Queen (NIN.GAL),

          113. the Anuna have submitted to you.

          114. From birth you were the smaller queen,

          115. the Anuna, all the great gods--
          how you have surpassed them!

          116. The Anuna kiss the ground before you with their lips.

          117. My own trial is not yet over,
          but a stranger sentence surrounds me as though it were my sentence.



[46] Or: "the lamentations, which were established".

[47] LaB: "should be approached".

[48] LaB: "they will die".

[49] UrB: "has not decided [my] verdict".

[50] NiU, NiDD: "He consumed my life."

[51] UnB: "the right garment".

[52] 2nd Version: "This will be pushed against you (like horns of a bull)”.

[53] This turn (idiom) is a regular formula of the heart-soothing of the gods,
which in this context agrees with the similar sounding:
"may it be ... turned to its territories".

[54] NiRR:"The beloved wife of An [has...], beloved [ ] of Ama[-sumgal-Ana]".



          118. To the radiant bed [55],
          I did not stretch out my hand.

          119. Nor did I reveal the words of Ningal to that 'someone' [56].

          120. The radiant en -priestess of Nanna am I.

          121. My Queen, beloved of An [57],
          may your heart be calmed for me.

          122. It shall be known, it shall be known:
          Nanna has proclaimed no decree,
          "It is yours" is what he has said!

          123. That you are as high as heaven, shall be known!

          124. That you are as wide as the earth, shall be known!

          125. That you anhilate rebelling territiories [58], shall be known!

          125a. That you roar against the enemy lands, shall be known!

          126. That you crush the leaders, shall be known!

          127. That you devour corpses like a predator, shall be known!

          128. That your glance is terrible, shall be known!

          129. That you raise your terrible glance, shall be known!

          130. That your glance is sparkling, shall be known!

          131. That you are unshakable and unyielding, shall be known!

          132. That you always stand triumphant, shall be known!

          133. That Nanna has not proclaimed (the decree),
          that he has said, "It is yours",

          134. my Queen- it has made you greater,
          you have become the greatest!

          135. My Queen, beloved of An,
          I will announce all of your wrath![59]

          136. I have heaped the coals,
          prepared the purification rites,

          137. The Esdam-ku [60] stands ready for you-
          will not your heart calm down for me? [61]

          138. Since the heart was full, too full,
          great Queen, I birthed it for you. [62]

          139. What was said to you at midnight,

          140. the cult singer shall repeat it to you at midday:

          141. "Because of your captive spouse,
          because of your captive protégé,

          142. your anger has grown large,
          your heart has not calmed down."



[55] NiDD:"In my radiant bed".

[56] UrB:"I will not say anything to him".

[57] NiA, UnB: "You are the beloved queen of An"

[58] UrA, LaC: kur.

[59] NiYY:"before your throne".

[60] The name of the Inana-temple in Girsu/Lagas;
beside it is also professed a place in various Inana-temples.

[61] Other texts:"May your heart be calmed/refreshed for me!"

[62] The meaning is first of all the text of NMS itself;
for a broader translation compare with Chapter 7.2.



          143 The Queen, the strong one,
          the ruler over the gathering of the 'en' [63],

          144 she did accept her prayer and sacrifice [64] .

          145 The heart of fate-determining Inana has turned to its place.

          146 The light was sweet for her, delight was spread over her,
          full of abundant beauty was she.

          147 As the light of the rising moon (NANNA),
          she too was clothed in enchantment.

          148 Nanna came out [65] to rightfully gaze (at her) in awe,

          149 (he and) her mother Ningal blessed her,

          150 and then the gate post said unto her "Be hailed!"

          151 What each said to the nugig is exalted.

          152 Destroyer of enemy lands,
          endowed with the ME from An,

          153 My Queen, draped in enchantment,
          (to you) Inana be glory!



[63] 'en' is a title for priests and rulers.

[64] In Sumerian this is only one lexeme. (=word)

[65] Another possible translation: (he) "led her out".

I have added a few explanations of her research in italics beneath some of the footnotes. For those unfamiliar with the Sumerian terms, Dr. Zgoll’s literary paraphrase will be most helpful and I will be posting it in the near futur. I have also taken the liberty in presenting the long lines of the poem as shorter pairs of lines whenever possible, to facilitate reading the poem. ---------------------------------------



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